Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of human epilepsy and has been related with extensive loss of hippocampal pyramidal and dentate hilar neurons and gliosis. Many characteristics of TLE are reproduced in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy in mice. This study analyzed the neuronal damage, assessed with Fluoro-Jade (FJB) and cresyl violet, and gliosis, investigated with glial fibrilary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry, occurring in the hippocampal formation of mice at 3, 6, 12 and 24h, 1 and 3 weeks after the pilocarpine-induced status-epilepticus (SE) onset. The maximum neuronal damage score and the FJB-positive neurons peak were found in the hilus of dentate gyrus 3 and 12 h after SE onset (P<0.05), respectively. At 1 week after SE onset, the greatest neuronal damage score was detected in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer and the greatest numbers of FJB-positive neurons were found both in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers (P<0.05). The molecular, CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell layers expressed highest presence of GFAP immunoreaction at 1 and 3 weeks after SE onset (P<0.05). Our findings show that, depending on the affected area, neuronal death and gliosis can occur within few hours or weeks after SE onset. Our results corroborate previous studies and characterize short time points of temporal evolution of neuropathological changes after the onset of pilocarpine-induced SE in mice and evidences that additional studies of this temporal evolution may be useful to the comprehension of the cellular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis.
It has been suggested that access to high caloric food attenuates stress response. The present paper investigates whether access to commercial chow enriched with glucose and fat, here referred to as comfort food alters behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal parameters of rats submitted to three daily sessions of foot-shock stress. Food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and serum levels of insulin, leptin, corticosterone, glucose and triglycerides were determined. The rats submitted to stress decreased the intake of commercial chow, but kept unaltered the intake of comfort food. During the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, stressed rats increased the number of head dipping, entries into the open arms, as well as the time spent there, and decreased the number of stretched-attend posture and risk assessment. These effects of stress were independent of the type of food consumed. Non-stressed rats ingesting comfort food decreased risk assessment as well. Stress and comfort food increased time spent in the center of the open field and delayed the first crossing to a new quadrant. Stress increased the plasma level of glucose and insulin, and reduced triglycerides, although consumption of comfort food increases glucose, triglyceride and leptin levels; no effect on leptin level was associated to stress. The stress induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated when rats had access to comfort food. It was concluded that foot-shock stress has an anorexigenic effect that is independent of leptin and prevented upon access to comfort food. Foot-shock stress also has an anxiolytic effect that is potentiated by the ingestion of comfort food and that is evidenced by both EPM and open field tests.
RESUMO -As interações entre os estímulos ambientais e as respostas de um organismo determinam as propriedades comportamentais que lhe garantem adaptação a diferentes situações e individualidade comportamental. A interação organismo-ambiente também diferencia e molda os circuitos neurais, que caracterizam a plasticidade e a individualidade neural do organismo. Os estudos sobre plasticidade neural incluem aqueles que manipulam o ambiente e analisam mudanças em circuitos neurais e outros que enfatizam recuperação comportamental após lesão do sistema nervoso. Diferentes questões relativas à fisiologia e ao comportamento, como também à morfologia, à bioquímica e à genética, são abordadas. Este trabalho procura caracterizar diferentes abordagens no estudo da plasticidade neural, indicando as suas relações com a análise do comportamento e da aprendizagem. A investigação dos efeitos que a interação organismo-ambiente produz sobre os sistemas neurais subjacentes ao comportamento é enfatizada como interessante.Palavras-chave: comportamento; plasticidade neural; sistema nervoso; aprendizagem.
Neural Plasticity: Relations With Behavior And Experimental ApproachesABSTRACT -Behavioral adaptiveness to different situations as well as behavioral individuality result from the interrelations between environmental sitmuli and the responses of an organism.These kind of interrelationships also shape the neural circuits as well as characterize the plasticity and the neural individuality of the organism. Studies on neural plasticity may analyze changes in neural circuitry after environmental manipulations or changes in behavior after lesions in the nervous system. Issues on neural plasticity and recovery of function refer both to physiology and behavior as well as to the subjacent mechanisms related to morphology, biochemistry and genetics. They may be approached at the systemic, behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. This work intends to characterize these kinds of studies pointing to their relations with the analyis of behavior and learning.The analysis of how the environmental-organismic interrelationships affect the neural substrates of behavior is pointed as a very stimulating area for investigation.Key words: behavior; neural plasticity; nervous system; learning.ram classes de comportamento favoráveis à sobrevivência dessa espécie; as contingências ontogenéticas foram estabelecidas pelas interações particulares desse organismo com o seu ambiente, desde o início do seu desenvolvimento e selecionaram as classes de respostas eficazes para a adaptação a um ambiente que muda constantemente. Neste sentido, podese afirmar que o comportamento de um indivíduo é produto de sua história filogenética, ontogenética e cultural (Bussab, 2000;Catania, 1999;Skinner, 1981).As mesmas pressões evolutivas que determinaram as mudanças na topografia e na função das reações do indiví-duo ao ambiente também determinaram alterações na forma, no tamanho e nas funções do sistema nervoso. O processo evolutivo resultou em cérebros com uma abundância de ci...
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