This paper deals with the design and fabrication of durable radio frequency identification (RFID) passive tag with inductive coupling, operating at ultra-high frequencies, dedicated to the identification and monitoring of professional textile products. A reliable architecture for the tag transponder is proposed, featuring a minimal number of galvanic contacts: The two pins of the integrated circuit are connected to the terminals of the inductive coupling loop by using surface mount technology welding. The transponder is encapsulated with an electrically insulating material which is waterproof and resistant to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stress. The antenna is inductively coupled to the transponder through a double loop which substantially reduces the length of the tag and significantly improves the coupling factor, enabling the tag to operate at a low power level. The reliability and flexibility of the tag is obtained by using appropriate materials and manufacturing methods for the ultra-high frequency (UHF) antenna by embroidering a multifilament stainless steel wire on textile support. The washing cycle tests have validated the applicability of this flexible and washable RFID tag, and its electromagnetic performance was experimentally assessed in an independent laboratory.
The present heating method which uses the cooling system of the internal combustion engine of the vehicle takes a lot of time to heat the interior air. In order to improve the heating process, auxiliary devices are required. The new innovative techniques propose as auxiliary heating device positive temperature coefficient heaters. For a better control of the temperature, the parameters of these devices should be known. This paper deals with a detailed description of the new types of positive temperature coefficient heaters used in automotive field. The test bench system developed for determining the parameters and characteristics of the positive temperature coefficient heater is described. The obtained data of the thermal resistance and voltage-current characteristics are used for controlling the temperature in order to design and control the positive temperature coefficient heaters properly.
The implementation of underground distribution lines has grown significantly over the last decades due to the rapid increase of electric energy demands. But, the lifetime distribution of lines is strongly affected by the single or multiple stresses that could develop in the insulation system of the power cables. In this paper, the influence of applied voltage waveform on partial discharge activity and lifetime distribution of insulation material for power cables was investigated. In this sense, the Inverse Power Law-Weibull model was applied in order to develop a life model of the PD induced degradation processes under different voltage waveforms occurring in microcavities from the power cables insulation system. For the insulation design it is of great importance to assess the insulation threshold by using the voltage tests. As result, the step-up test method was used.
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