A high degree of intraspecific variation, both genetic and in shell morphology, of the operculate land snail Cyclophorus fulguratus (Pfeiffer, 1854) suggests that its classification as a single species warrants reconsideration. We sequenced two nuclear (18S and 28S) and two mitochondrial (16S and COI) genes of 46 C. fulguratus specimens and used them to estimate the phylogeny and to determine the validity of species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of three lineages corresponding to three geographically disjunctive populations of C. fulguratus in Thailand. Likelihood tests of topologies significantly supported the non-monophyly of the C. fulguratus–complex and Bayesian species delimitation analysis significantly supported the potential representation as distinct species of these three lineages. Discriminant function analysis based on geometric-morphometrics of shell shape allowed for significant distinction of these three candidate species, although they revealed a considerable degree of overlap of shell shape reflecting their crypsis morphologically. The diagnostic characters are provided by color pattern, pattern of protoconch and pattern of jaw. In conclusion, the results support that the C. fulguratus s.l., as currently recognized, consists of three distinct species in Thailand: C. fulguratus s.s., C. rangunensis and C. abditus sp.nov., which are described herein.
Sophina is a poorly known and neglected genus due to the inaccessibility of the Salween Basin, Southern Myanmar. Taxonomic status, distribution, and phylogeny are being revised based on an integrative analysis of genitalia, radula, and molecular data. Morphological variation in shells and genitalia, together with a phylogenetic tree from concatenated data of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, revealed the existence of ten species/subspecies. Penial morphology and genetic divergence were generally consistent and useful in delimiting species, while shell characters showed little overall taxonomic utility in some species. Taxonomic placement of the previous subspecies “bensoni” shows clear distinction in both genitalia and molecular evidence, and is currently recognized as a distinct species. The nominal species “S. schistostelis” and “S. calias” possess similar genitalia and shell morphology, and molecular evidence suggested that they are sister taxa representing geographically isolated populations. Four new species are additionally described herein as S. furfuracea n. sp., S. pisinna n. sp., S. salweenica n. sp., and S. tonywhitteni n. sp. based on both morphology and molecular evidence. Phylogenetic analyses supported monophyly of Sophina, and further a split into two principal clades. These two clades showed little difference in genitalia, but more clear differences in the umbilical area and allopatric distribution in upper and lower reaches of the Gyaing River. High genetic divergence was revealed and this coincided with remarkable degree of endemism and localization with a pattern of one outcrop for one lineage. These data highlight the importance of the Salween Basin's karst ecosystems as an evolutionary and endemic biodiversity hotspot, and indicate that a focus on conservation and management in this area is urgently required.
The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a crucial freshwater biodiversity hotspot and supports one of the world’s largest inland fisheries. Within the Tonle Sap basin, freshwater molluscs provide vital ecosystem services and are among the fauna targetted for commercial harvesting. Despite their importance, freshwater molluscs of the Tonle Sap basin remain poorly studied. The historical literature was reviewed and at least 153 species of freshwater molluscs have been previously recorded from throughout Cambodia, including 33 from the Tonle Sap basin. Surveys of the Tonle Sap Lake and surrounding watershed were also conducted and found 31 species, 15 bivalves (five families) and 16 gastropods (eight families), in the Tonle Sap basin, including three new records for Cambodia (Scaphula minuta, Novaculina siamensis, Wattebledia siamensis), the presence of globally invasive Pomacea maculata and potential pest species like Limnoperna fortunei. This study represents the most comprehensive documentation of freshwater molluscs of the Tonle Sap basin, and voucher specimens deposited at the Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Cambodia, represent the first known reference collection of freshwater molluscs in the country. In order to combat the combined anthropogenic pressures, including invasive species, climate change and dams along the Mekong River, a multi-pronged approach is urgently required to study the biodiversity, ecology, ecosystem functioning of freshwater molluscs and other aquatic fauna in the Tonle Sap basin.
The endemic terrestrial Crown Snail from Southern Thailand formerly in Macrochlamys
Gray, 1847 is now described as Taphrenalla Pholyotha & Panha gen. nov., based on comparative morphology and molecular data. Overall, eleven Taphrenalla species are now recognized, including two nominal species: T. asamurai and T. diadema. A total of nine new species are proposed: T. alba sp. nov., T. conformis sp. nov., T. corona sp. nov., T. dalli sp. nov., T. incilis sp. nov., T. macrosulcata sp. nov., T. parversa sp. nov., T. pygmaea sp. nov. and T. zemia sp. nov. The molecular phylogeny constructed from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA gene fragments plus the nuclear 28S rDNA gene fragments revealed that
Taphrenalla gen. nov. is monophyletic with a well-supported clade. The diagnostic characters of Taphrenalla gen. nov. are the shell sculpture with several radial grooves, body with well-developed colourful stripes running from the head to tail, and genitalia similar to Macrochamys but with an un-coiling epiphallic caecum. The spermatophore has one or two spines near the sperm sac and a spineless tail.
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