Copy number variations (CNVs) are important genetic variants complementary to SNPs, and can be considered as biomarkers for some economically important traits in domestic animals. In the present study, a genomic analysis of porcine CNVs based on next-generation sequencing data was carried out to identify CNVs segregating in an Iberian x Landrace backcross population and study their association with fatty acid composition and growth-related traits. A total of 1,279 CNVs, including duplications and deletions, were detected, ranging from 106 to 235 CNVs across samples, with an average of 183 CNVs per sample. Moreover, we detected 540 CNV regions (CNVRs) containing 245 genes. Functional annotation suggested that these genes possess a great variety of molecular functions and may play a role in production traits in commercial breeds. Some of the identified CNVRs contained relevant functional genes (e.g., CLCA4, CYP4X1, GPAT2, MOGAT2, PLA2G2A and PRKG1, among others). The variation in copy number of four of them (CLCA4, GPAT2, MOGAT2 and PRKG1) was validated in 150 BC1_LD (25% Iberian and 75% Landrace) animals by qPCR. Additionally, their contribution regarding backfat and intramuscular fatty acid composition and growth–related traits was analyzed. Statistically significant associations were obtained for CNVR112 (GPAT2) for the C18:2(n-6)/C18:3(n-3) ratio in backfat and carcass length, among others. Notably, GPATs are enzymes that catalyze the first step in the biosynthesis of both triglycerides and glycerophospholipids, suggesting that this CNVR may contribute to genetic variation in fatty acid composition and growth traits. These findings provide useful genomic information to facilitate the further identification of trait-related CNVRs affecting economically important traits in pigs.
Economic losses due to an increase of leg disorders in broilers have become a major concern of the poultry industry. Despite the efforts to reduce skeletal abnormalities in chickens, insufficient progress has been made. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main disorders that affect bone integrity in broilers. However, the genetic pathways and genes involved in most bone problems, including BCO, remains unclear. In this study, femoral samples from male broilers with 45 days of age affected or not with BCO were used to compare the relative expression with a reverse transcription real time PCR approach of 13 candidate genes: SPP1 (osteopontin), TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin), SPARC (osteonectin), CALB1 (calbidin 1), CALM (Calmodulin 2), IBSP (sialoprotein), COL1A2 (collagen, type I, α 2), BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2), BMP3 (bone morphogenetic protein 3), RANKL (κ-B nuclear factor ligand), SMAD1 (SMAD family member 1), LEPR (leptin receptor) and RUNX2 (related transcription factor Runt 2). Differential expression test between affected and non-affected groups was performed using the REST software. The RUNX2 and SPARC genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in the affected group, with reduced expression of fourfold when compared with the non-affected group. This result indicates that the downregulation of RUNX2 and SPARC can contribute to an increased incidence of BCO in broilers.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphism of fifteen microsatellites loci in Brazilian (blue-egg Caipira) chickens. Samples were collected from 100 blue eggs of Caipira chickens from rural properties in the city of Dois Lajeados, RS. After DNA extraction, the fragments related to molecular markers LEI0248, LEI0221, LEI0214, LEI0192, LEI0217, LEI0254, LEI0194, LEI0212, MCW0371, ADL0278, LEI0234, MCW0183, MCW0216, MCW0330 and MCW0081 were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The statistical analysis were carried out with the softwares ARLEQUIN 3.5 version and CER-VUS 3.0.3 version. The allelic and genotypic frequencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, estimates of observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were obtained for each marker locus. A total of 186 alleles from 15 loci were obtained, with sizes ranging of 83 to 490 base pairs. The medium number of alleles was 12.4, the HE was 0.76±0.14 and HO was 0.49±0.21 and PIC was 0.706. The first conclusion is that the microsatellites used are polymorphic and can be used to genetic studies in chickens. The second is that the "Caipira" chicken (blue eggs) population investigated has a great genic variability, which makes than an important source of genetic resources for future animal breeding programs. Genetic polymorphism of fifteen microsatellite loci in Brazilian (blue-egg Caipira) chickens nhas caipiras de ovos azuis analisada apresenta grande variabilidade gênica, o que as torna uma importante fonte de recursos genéticos, e que poderão, assim, serem utilizadas em futuros programas de melhoramento genético animal.
This study aimed to investigate the genetic variability of two Brazilian free range (Caipira) chickens lines using microsatellites analysis of ten loci. It was collected a total of
Context The effect of heat stress on the production and physiology of lactating dairy cows is well documented in literature. However, little is known about the effect of the provision of shade on DNA damage. Aims The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of shade provision on physiological, oxidative-stress, and DNA-strand damage in dairy cows exposed to mild heat stress. Methods The study was conducted at Lages, SC, Brazil, during 15 days in a southern hemisphere summer (January and February), with 14 lactating Holstein (n = 10) and Holstein × Jersey crossbreed (n = 4) dairy cows. Animals were randomly allocated to two groups of seven animals each (named as shaded and unshaded). These two groups were evaluated in the following three different periods: pre-stress period (5-day duration), stress period (4-day duration) and post-stress period (6-day duration). Shaded cows had free access to shade throughout the study; unshaded cows were prevented from accessing shade only in the stress period. Physiological (rectal temperature, heart and respiratory frequencies and panting score) and DNA-damage parameters (through Comet assay), as well as oxidative stress (in blood: carbonyl content, nitrite:nitrate ratio, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) were evaluated. Key results In the stress period, shade deprivation resulted in higher values of respiratory rate, indicating that cows were under heat stress. In addition, DNA-damage levels were higher in this circumstance, probably due to inhibition of the DNA-repair systems by the thermal stress as well as thermal stress acting as a DNA-damage agent. Conclusions In a high-altitude subtropical region, during the hot season, shade provision decreases solar radiation heating effects and, thus, reduces DNA damage and the negative effects on cow metabolism and cell structure. Implications Shade effects on cow metabolism and cell structure must be taken into consideration in the planning of dairy farms and our results suggest that shade availability must not be disregarded, even in situations of mild heat stress.
O presente estudo, que aborda o uso das tecnologias digitais na Educação Física Escolar, tem o objetivo de identificar e de analisar as produções científicas relacionadas ao uso das tecnologias digitais, como recursos didático-pedagógicos, no ensino da Educação Física Escolar. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, cujo método se baseia em pesquisa bibliográfica e análise textual discursiva. A coleta de dados foi realizada entre os meses de abril até junho de 2022, a partir do levantamento de produções de dois bancos de dados: o Banco de Teses e de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) e a Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD). As produções levantadas correspondem ao período entre 2017 e 2022, sendo utilizados os descritores: “Ensino”, “Educação Física” e “Tecnologias Digitais”. Foram selecionados onze artigos e sete dissertações. Entre os recursos de tecnologia digital utilizados como estratégias de ensino, destacou-se o uso de instrumentos como o Smartphone e o Tablet, bem como de aplicativos (QR-Code, Google Fit, Apple Health, Fitness Runkeeper, WhatsApp, Just Dance). Analisando os resultados das produções pesquisadas, constatou-se a possibilidade de articulação das tecnologias digitais com o ensino de Educação Física escolar. Por outro lado, também foram apontadas limitações, que se referem às condições de acesso às tecnologias digitais pelas unidades escolares, bem como, à formação inicial e continuada de professores. Por fim, considerando as produções analisadas, verificou-se que o ensino mediado pelas tecnologias digitais não substitui o professor, mas potencializa novas experiências no ensino da Educação Física escolar.
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