RESUMO.-A ultrassonografia é um método de diagnóstico por imagem que permite a avaliação de diferentes órgãos e estruturas corpóreas de maneira não invasiva. No entanto, a avaliação subjetiva das imagens caracteriza um dos grandes entraves na utilização desta técnica de diagnósti-co, havendo necessidade de mecanismos que minimizem a subjetividade do exame e a divergência na interpretação dos achados ultrassonográficos. Desta forma este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a ecogenicidade do parênquima e mediastino testicular de ovinos utilizando a técnica do histograma escala-cinza. Foram utilizados 30 animais divididos em três grupos de acordo com a faixa etária (FE): de três a seis meses (FE1), sete a 12 meses (FE2), 13 a 18 meses (FE3) e realizadas varreduras testiculares nos planos frontal, sagital e transversal, elaborando ao final um histo- Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging method that allows a no invasive evaluation of different organs and body structures. However, the personal evaluation of images is one of the major hampers in using this technique. In order to reduce this drawback, it is necessary to find out tools that can help diminish the divergence in the interpretation of sonographic findings. Therefore, this study aimed to identify features of the parenchyma's and mediastinum's testis of sheep echogenicity using the technique of gray scale histogram. 30 animals were divided into three groups according to age (FE): three to six months (FE1), seven to 12 months (FE2), 13 to 18 months (FE3). The testicular scans were performed in the frontal, sagital and transverse views, and the gray scale histograms were analyzed. It was observed that such parenchymal as the mediastinum testis echogenicity gradually increased with the aging of the animals, with mean and standard deviation of 95.00±19.05 and 94.35±18.82 for the echogenicity parenchyma of the right and left antimere, respectively, and 127.95±12.97 to 126.59±11.78, for the right and the left mediastinum. The technique of gray scale histogram was an efficient method for determination of testicular echogenicity, enabling the establishment of normal standards that may assist future research in monitoring testicular development as well as for detecting pathologies. For exclusive regimes of extensive farming, as the western lowland region of Maranhão, is a valuable tool for use in social projects of the State to attend the family farm.
The objective of this study was to define the patterns of organogenesis and foetal haemodynamics during the normal gestation of healthy agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) kept in captivity. Thirty pregnant agoutis that ranged in size from small to medium and weighed between 2.5 and 3 kg underwent B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography for the biometric evaluation of the foetal organs. The foetal aortic blood flow proved to be predominantly systolic, and the measured flow velocity was 78.89 ± 2.95 cm/s, with a maximum pressure gradient of 2.12 ± 0.27 mmHg. The liver was characterized by its large volume, occupying the entire cranial aspect of the abdominal cavity, and it was associated cranially with the diaphragm and caudally with the stomach. The flow velocity in the portal vein was estimated to equal 12.17 ± 2.37 cm/s, with a resistivity index of 0.82 ± 0.05. The gallbladder was centrally located and protruded cranially towards the diaphragm. The spleen was visualized as an elongated structure with tapered cranial and caudal extremities, and the foetal kidneys were visualized bilaterally in the retroperitoneal region, with the right kidney positioned slightly more cranially than the left. The morphological characterization and hemodynamic analysis of the foetal organs of black-rumped agoutis via B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography allow determination of the vascular network and of reference values for the blood flow required for perfusing the anatomical elements essential for maintaining the viability of foetuses at different gestational ages.
B-scan ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool that allows characterization of internal organ anatomy and, when complemented by Doppler ultrasound, allows vascular hemodynamic assessment, increasing the diagnostic accuracy. Thus, the aim of the present study was the B-scan ultrasound characterization and measurement of the eyeball segments and assessment of the external ophthalmic artery by color and pulsed Doppler. Sixty eyeballs were assessed from 30 dogs of different breeds using an 8.5MHz microconvex transductor. First, biometry was performed by B-scan of the following segments: axial length (M1), anterior chamber depth (M2), lens thickness (M3), lens length (M4), vitreous chamber depth (M5), optical disc length (M6) and optic nerve diameter (M7). Colored Doppler identified the external ophthalmic article and pulsed Doppler assessed its flow, and the following were measured: systolic peak velocity (VPS), final diastolic velocity (VDF), resistivity index (IR) and pulse index (IP). No statistical difference was observed for the biometric values of the eye segments between the right and left eyes (p>0.05). The vitreous chamber depth (M5) was shown to be the biometric variable with greatest bilateral symmetry, varying from 0.79 to 0.87cm and 0.78 to 0.86cm for the right and left eye, respectively. The ophthalmic artery was visualized over the optic nerve towards the eyeball, with flow stained red. There was no significant statistical difference between the Doppler velocimetric values for the ophthalmic artery between the right and left eye of the animals assessed (p>0.05). The mean resistivity index (RI) showed average values equal to 0.63±0.03, bilaterally. The mean base velocity was 17.50cm/s and 18.18cm/s at the systolic peak and 6.21cm/s and 6.68cm/s at the end of the diastole, for the right and left eyes respectively. The anatomic, biometric and hemodynamic characterization using the ultrasound B-scan and the Doppler modalities permitted the ultrasonographic and Doppler velocimetric assessment of the eyeball components in dogs of different breeds, and it can be used in ophthalmic clinical routine to identify eye pathologies.
Peccaries are wild mammals belonging to the Tayassu genus that are found almost everywhere in the Americas and have demonstrated great potential as an experimental model for scientific investigations. Twelve healthy adult animals were sedated to perform echocardiographic examinations in B, M and Doppler mode. The variables that exhibited statistically significant correlation coefficients with weight were LVFWd, LVIDd, LVIDs, E wave, A’RV, MAM, and TAPSE. The HR exhibited a negative relationship with the IVRT. The LA variable showed a positive correlation with the AO. The MAM exhibited correlations with the LVIDd and LVIDs. The TAPSE showed positive correlations with the E’RV and A’RV. The present study provides the first reference values for echocardiographic measurements in B, M and Doppler modes from peccaries anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam. Echocardiography was easy to perform in collared peccaries, and the collected data revealed values that can aid in their clinical management and conservation.
This study used B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography to characterize the abdominal structures of healthy peccaries raised in captivity. Fifteen peccaries were used for this study. The urinary vesicle appeared as an ovoid structure, located in the abdominal and pelvic transition, with a hyperechogenic, thin, smooth, and regular wall. The kidneys presented retroperitoneal topography and had similar sizes. The kidney/aorta ratio had an average value of 10.53±15cm (right) and 10.23±0.12 (left). The right adrenal gland had a length of 1.93±0.34cm and diameter of 0.56±0.16cm. The left adrenal gland had a length of 1.85±0.42cm and diameter of 0.52±0.11cm. The spleen had a diameter of 1.13±0.18cm. The hepatic vein demonstrated polyphasic flow in pulsed Doppler, with two retrograde peaks and an anterograde peak with a flow velocity of 25.7±0.83cm/s. The abdominal aorta had a diameter of 0.58±0.05cm and a flow velocity of 115.17±5.32cm/s. The morphological and hemodynamic study of the abdominal structures of the peccary, observed through B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, aided in identifying the size, shape, position, echogenicity, and echotexture of the abdominal organs and in making inferences about the normal parameters for these structures in this species.
Background: The use of ultrasound examination in the evaluation of ophthalmopathies has been gaining more and more space within the ophthalmologic clinical routine. The hemodynamic study of ocular vascularization may anticipate future changes, aiding in the adequate establishment of therapeutic conduits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structures of the ocular bulb and to perform the hemodynamic evaluation of the flow of the external ophthalmic artery of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) correlating with healthy animals.Materials, Methods & Results: For this purpose, 100 animals were used, of these 70 positive for CVL and 30 healthy animals, submitted to B-mode and Doppler ultrasound examination. Two-dimensional evaluation included identification of ocular changes and biometry of the following segments: axial length (M1), anterior chamber depth (M2), lens thickness (M3), lens length (M4), glass chamber depth (M5), optical disc length (M6) and optic nerve length (M7). The Doppler velocimetric evaluation included the identification and hemodynamic evaluation of the external ophthalmic artery, being measured: systolic peak velocity (SPV), final diastolic velocity (FDV), resistivity index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI). Ophthalmopathies were frequent in animals with leishmaniasis in both right (91.42%) and left (29.14%) eyes, with identification of capsular cataract, lens dislocation, retinal detachment and lens rupture. No significant statistical difference (P > 0.05) was observed when comparing the biometric values between the right and left eyes of the animals with CVL, as well as for the measurements between healthy and CVL animals. Hemodynamic indexes of the flow of the external ophthalmic artery presented narrow limits for the right and left eyes of the positive animals, not statistically different from each other. However, a significant difference was observed when compared to hemodynamic evaluations of the flow of the ophthalmic artery between the right eyes of the group of normal animals and that of the carriers of leishmaniasis, with the latter presenting values superior to the first one. The B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation enabled the morphological characterization of the ocular bulb, the identification of ophthalmopathies and the hemodynamic evaluation of the external ophthalmic artery of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis, establishing values that could be used in clinical ophthalmologic routine.Discussion: The presence of ocular changes diagnosed by B-mode ultrasonography were common in dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis. Ocular lesions were observed in 80.5% of dogs with leishmaniasis, presenting a high frequency, corroborating with the results in the present research. In 22% of the animals, B-mode ultrasonographic lesions were identified in both eyes, 64 of these presented changes only in the right eye and 16 in the left eye. Ophthalmopathies can be uni or bilateral and cause more than one alteration in the same eye, resulting from both the immune-mediated mechanisms caused by the agent and direct parasitism. Although the literature reports that the highest frequency of lesions is bilateral, only 16 animals had alterations in both eyes. The origin of ophthalmopathies may be related to the species and tropism of the parasite, type and duration of the immune response developed by the host. The greater frequency of bilateral ophthalmopathies can have correlation with the systemic disease, in which in the initial stages of the disease only one eye is affected and the occurrence of bilateral manifestations is related to the chronic cases.
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