During Apollo, the constraints placed by the design of the Lunar Module (LM) window for crew visibility and landing trajectory were "a major problem." Lunar landing trajectories were tailored to provide crew visibility using nearly 70 degrees look-down angle from the canted LM windows. Apollo landings were scheduled only at specific times and locations to provide optimal sunlight on the landing site.The complications of trajectory design and crew visibility are still a problem today. Practical vehicle designs for lunar lander missions using optimal or near-optimal fuel trajectories render the natural vision of the crew from windows inadequate for the approach and landing task. Further, the sun angles for the desirable landing areas in the lunar polar regions create visually powerful, season-long shadow effects. Fortunately, Synthetic and Enhanced Vision (S/EV) technologies, conceived and developed in the aviation domain, may provide solutions to this visibility problem and enable additional benefits for safer, more efficient lunar operations. Piloted simulation evaluations have been conducted to assess the handling qualities of the various lunar landing concepts, including the influence of cockpit displays and the informational data and formats. Evaluation pilots flew various landing scenarios with S/EV displays. For some of the evaluation trials, an eye glasses-mounted, monochrome monocular display, coupled with head tracking, was worn. The head-worn display scene consisted of S/EV fusion concepts.The results of this experiment showed that a head-worn system did not increase the pilot's workload when compared to using just the head-down displays. As expected, the head-worn system did not provide an increase in performance measures. Some pilots commented that the head-worn system provided greater situational awareness compared to just head-down displays.
The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XMLdefined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.
This follow-on paper describes the principal methods of implementing, and documents the results of exercising, a set of six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body equations of motion and planetary geodetic, gravitation and atmospheric models for simple vehicles in a variety of endo-and exo-atmospheric conditions with various NASA, and one popular open-source, engineering simulation tools. This effort is intended to provide an additional means of verification of flight simulations. The models used in this comparison, as well as the resulting time-history trajectory data, are available electronically for persons and organizations wishing to compare their flight simulation implementations of the same models.
A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked -but only slightly -by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.
Abstract-Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft.A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing.These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the "pilot-vehicle dynamic system," including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.
The capability of the HL-20 liftiT_g body to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizolttal laTtding was studied. The study involved both, piloted and bateh simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator in the fixed-base mode. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for" the worst-case launch-pad-to-landingsite geometry with art iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis s followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvemerLts to the candidate maneuver. The resultinq maneuver demonstrates the launchsite abort capability of the HL-2O and dictates requiremer_ts for nominal abort-motor performance. The sensitirity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters wa,s doeumeT_ted.
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