With increasing utilization of digital multimedia and the Internet, protection on this digital information from cracks has become a hot topic in the communication field. As a path for protecting digital visual information, image encryption plays a crucial role in modern society. In this paper, a novel six-dimensional (6D) hyper-chaotic encryption scheme with three-dimensional (3D) transformed Zigzag diffusion and RNA operation (HCZRNA) is proposed for color images. For this HCZRNA scheme, four phases are included. First, three pseudo-random matrices are generated from the 6D hyper-chaotic system. Second, plaintext color image would be permuted by using the first pseudo-random matrix to convert to an initial cipher image. Third, the initial cipher image is placed on cube for 3D transformed Zigzag diffusion using the second pseudo-random matrix. Finally, the diffused image is converted to RNA codons array and updated through RNA codons tables, which are generated by codons and the third pseudo-random matrix. After four phases, a cipher image is obtained, and the experimental results show that HCZRNA has high resistance against well-known attacks and it is superior to other schemes.
Image encryption plays an essential role in the community of image security. Most existing image encryption approaches adopt a permutation-diffusion scheme to permute pixel positions and change pixel values separately. One limitation of this scheme is that it has a high risk of being cracked. To solve this problem, we propose an approach that jointly permutates and diffuses (JPD) the pixels in a color image for encryption. First, a 4D hyperchaotic system with two positive Lyapunov exponents is used to generate a sequence for almost all encryption procedures. To enhance security, the plain image's information is introduced to the hyperchaotic system's initial parameters. Then, the hyperchaotic sequence is used to permute and diffuse the pixels in images jointly. More specifically, two index matrices that determine which pixels will be permuted and diffused and one mask matrix that determines how the pixels will be diffused are generated by the hyperchaotic sequence. We test the proposed JPD with several popular images. Experimental results and security analysis demonstrate that the JPD is capable of resisting various types of attacks. Moreover, the JPD can accelerate the encryption process. All these indicate that the JPD is effective and efficient for color image encryption.
Given the unprecedentedly dense deployment of wireless networks due to the proliferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices in the limited spectrum bands, many of these wireless networks should operate at least partially overlapped or even on the same spectrum band. Incompatible communication pattern of different networks with different applications (e.g. Internet of Things, wireless sensor networks and individual wireless communication) would cause serious wireless networks coexistence problem. For the representative, two bands, 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical band and the TV white spaces, effective signalling protocols, as well as radio resource allocation mechanisms could achieve an efficient and fair utilization of spectrum. In this survey, we report and analyse the recent technical advance and development of coexistence protocols. Aiming at tracing the latest developments in this field, we attempt to deliver a comprehensive coverage on existing literatures with a proper technical depth to introduce the design idea and philosophy and analyse the pros and cons of each surveyed coexistence solution. We also discuss a number of important and relevant research challenges that have not been addressed in the existing literatures and that deserve further research attention and investigation.
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