Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) is an endemic species from Brazilian Cerrado, and their fruits are widely used in regional cuisine. In this work, a crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) of C. brasiliense leaves and its resulting fractions in hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and butanol (BF) were investigated for their antioxidant properties and anticholinesterase activities. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by free radical scavenging and electroanalytical assays, which were further correlated with the total phenolic content and LC-MS results. The acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities were examined using Ellman's colorimetric method. The LC-MS analysis of EAF revealed the presence of gallic acid and quercetin. CHE and its fractions, EAF and BF, showed anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities, suggesting the association of both effects with the phenolic content. In addition, behavioral tests performed with CHE (10, 100, and 300 mg/kg) showed that it prevented mice memory impairment which resulted from aluminium intake. Moreover, CHE inhibited brain lipid peroxidation and acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase activities and the extract's neuroprotective effect was reflected at the microscopic level. Therefore, the leaves of pequi are a potential source of phenolic antioxidants and can be potentially used in treatments of memory dysfunctions, such as those associated with neurodegenerative disorders.
In this work, an innovative polyphenol oxidase biosensor was developed from Jenipapo (Genipa americana L.) fruit and used to assess phenolic compounds in industrial effluent samples obtained from a textile industry located in Jaraguá-GO, Brasil. The biosensor was prepared and optimized according to: the proportion of crude vegetal extract, pH and overall voltammetric parameters for differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration curve presented a linear interval from 10 to 310 µM (r2 = 0.9982) and a limit of detection of 7 µM. Biosensor stability was evaluated throughout 15 days, and it exhibited 88.22% of the initial response. The amount of catechol standard recovered post analysis varied between 87.50% and 96.00%. Moreover, the biosensor was able to detect phenolic compounds in a real sample, and the results were in accordance with standard spectrophotometric assays. Therefore, the innovatively-designed biosensor hereby proposed is a promising tool for phenolic compound detection and quantification when environmental contaminants are concerned.
Eugenia dysenterica ex DC Mart. (Myrtaceae), popularly known as “cagaita,” is a Brazilian plant rich in polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds. Aiming to evaluate the potential use of cagaita in pathologies involving oxidative stress, such as neurodegenerative disorders, this study investigated its antioxidant potential and neuroprotective effect. Electrochemical approaches and aluminium-induced neurotoxicity were used to determine respectively in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of cagaita. Voltammetric experiments were carried out in a three-electrode system, whose working electrode consisted of glassy carbon. Male Swiss mice were administered with AlCl3 orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day and with cagaita leaf hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) at doses of 10, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day. The redox behavior of CHE presented similar features to that of quercetin, a widely known antioxidant standard. CHE prevented mouse memory impairment which resulted from aluminium intake. In addition, biochemical markers of oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase activity, and lipid peroxidation) were normalized by CHE treatment. The potential of CHE to prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity was reflected at the microscopic level, through the decrease of the number of eosinophilic necrosis phenotypes seen in treated groups. Moreover, the protective effect of CHE was similar to that of quercetin, which was taken as the standard. These findings showed that the CHE of cagaita leaves has a potential to protect the brain against oxidative-induced brain damage.
This work showcased the first physicochemical investigation of psoralen (PSO) binding to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through electroanalytical methods. Results evidenced that PSO presents one non-reversible anodic peak at electric potential (Epa) ≈ 1.42 V, which is associated with its oxidation and the formation of an epoxide derivative. Moreover, PSO analytical signal (i.e., faradaic current) decreases linearly with the addition of dsDNA, while the electric potential associated to PSO oxidation shifts towards more positive values, indicating thence that dsDNA addition hinders PSO oxidation. These findings were corroborated by the chemoinformatic study, which evidenced that PSO intercalated noncovalently at first between base-pairs of the DNA duplex, and then irreversibly formed adducts with both DNA strands, leading up to the formation of a cross-link which bridges the DNA helix, which explains the linear dependence between the faradaic current generated by PSO oxidation and the concentration of DNA in the test-solution, as well as the dependence between Ep and the addition of dsDNA solution. Therefore, the findings herein reported evidence of the applicability of electroanalytical approaches, such as voltammetry in the study of DNA intercalating agents.
This work details the study of the redox behavior of the drugs cyclobenzaprine (CBP), amitriptyline (AMP) and nortriptyline (NOR) through voltammetric methods and computational chemistry. Results obtained in this study show that the amine moiety of each compound is more likely to undergo oxidation at 1a at Ep1a ≈ 0.69, 0.79, 0.93 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/KClsat) for CBP, AMP and NOR, respectively. Moreover, CBP presented a second peak, 2a at Ep2a ≈ 0.98 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/KClsat) at pH 7.0. Furthermore, the electronic structure calculation results corroborate the electrochemical assays regarding the HOMO energies of the lowest energy conformers of each molecule. The mechanism for each anodic process is proposed according to electroanalytical and computational chemistry findings, which show evidence that the methods herein employed may be a valuable alternative to study the redox behavior of structurally similar drugs.
Black tea (BT) is a widely consumed natural product whose myriad of therapeutic applications rely on its constituents of remarkable antioxidant power. The electroanalysis is unique to provide a precise redox characterization of samples presenting a single compound or even a pool of electroactive species. Hence, this work aims to study the BT redox profile through electroanalytical methods. Voltammetric techniques such as Ciclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differential Pulse Voltammetry were conducted in BT crude vegetal mater samples and pharmaceutical grade standardized dried extract. It was found for all BT samples two anodic processes, the first occurring at peak potentials bellow +0.5V, thus indicating a strong antioxidant activity. The results related to BT pool compounds voltammetric profile suggested that the first anodic process is reversible, whereas the second irreversible. In addition, such electron/proton transfer reactions undergo EC mechanisms, which are mostly diffusion controlled electrochemical processes. Since low anodic potential and reversible redox behavior are related to high reducing power and good regenerating ability, it can be inferred, that the recognized antioxidant activity of BT samples is undeniable.
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