P, Drewes AM, Gregersen H. The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) for evaluation of the esophagogastric junction. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292: G377-G384, 2007. First published August 31, 2006; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00311.2006.-There is a need for new methods to study the dynamics of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). The aims were to verify the efficacy and usefulness of a "functional lumen imaging probe" (FLIP) for the evaluation of the EGJ. Eight healthy volunteers (6 men), median age 26 (21-35) yr, and two achalasia patients underwent the FLIP procedure. The EGJ was located by manometry. The FLIP measured eight cross-sectional areas (CSAs) 4 mm apart together with the pressure inside a saline-filled cylindrical bag. The data showed the geometric profile of the EGJ reconstructed in a video animation of its dynamic activity. A plot of curve-fitted data for the smallest CSA vs. pressure after balloon distension indicated that the pressure increased from 18 cmH 2O at a CSA of 38 mm 2 to a pressure of 37 cmH2O at a CSA of 230 mm 2 for the healthy controls. In one achalasia patient (unsuccessfully treated with dilations), the CSA never rose above the minimal measurable value despite the pressure increasing to 50 cmH2O. In another achalasia patient (successfully treated with dilations), the pressure only reached 15 cmH2O despite opening to a CSA of 250 mm 2 . In conclusion, FLIP represents the first dynamic technique to profile the function and anatomy of the EGJ. The method can be used practically to evaluate difficult cases of EGJ dysfunction and may provide a role in evaluating patients before and after therapies for diseases affecting the EGJ such as achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease. esophagus; competence; distensibility; cross-sectional area; functional imaging THE LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (LES) is not solely responsible for impeding the flow between the esophagus and the stomach. The crural diaphragm encircles ϳ2 cm of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), and the sling or oblique fibers of the stomach also contribute to the mechanism (15, 21). Esophageal and gastric motility, pressures in the abdominal and thoracic cavities, and the exact location of the EGJ all play a role in defining its function. The anatomy and behavior of the EGJ also change with time and body posture (20). The EGJ is a very dynamic mechanical structure. A lot of knowledge about the anatomy of the EGJ has been assembled over the last 40 years, but much of our limited understanding of the behavior has been related to manometric studies. Intraluminal pressure recording is the current gold standard for determining the motility characteristics of the esophagus. Although manometry provides useful information on the location of the EGJ and on phasic motility within the lumens of the digestive tract, it may be more restrictive in what it can tell us about sphincteric regions and their dynamics.Two classic diseases involving the EGJ are gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and achalasia. Achalasia is an esophageal ...
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have critical functions in vascular diseases. Haemodynamic factors are important regulators of VSMC functions in vascular pathophysiology. VSMCs are physiologically active in the threedimensional matrix and interact with the shear stress sensor of endothelial cells (ECs). The purpose of this review is to illustrate how haemodynamic factors regulate VSMC functions under two-dimensional conditions in vitro or three-dimensional co-culture conditions in vivo. Recent advances show that high shear stress induces VSMC apoptosis through endothelial-released nitric oxide and low shear stress upregulates VSMC proliferation and migration through platelet-derived growth factor released by ECs. This differential regulation emphasizes the need to construct more actual environments for future research on vascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis and hypertension) and cardiovascular tissue engineering.
Patients with IFI have increased distensibility of the middle and distal parts of the anal canal.
No quantitative method has been implemented routinely in clinical practice to assess the oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ). Using impedance planimetry a functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) was constructed to measure eight cross-sectional areas (CSA) at 4 mm intervals inside a saline-filled bag. To validate the FLIP technique for profiling the OGJ, polymethylmethacrylate (Perspex) cylinders with different CSAs were measured ten times by the FLIP to assess reproducibility and accuracy. A geometric sphincter phantom was constructed and its geometry was measured with a 360 degrees radial ultrasound (US) mini-probe pulled through it at a rate of 1 mm s(-1). The measurements were compared with FLIP measurements. Safety and technique reproducibility were tested on a volunteer. Reproducibility and accuracy between the ten samples were good. The probe performed well with and without a balloon mounted on it except for the smallest CSA (38.5 mm(2)) where there was a difference of 22% from the actual value at one CSA measurement point. The FLIP imaged the phantom geometry as well as the radial scanning US mini-probe. Pilot studies on a volunteer showed that the probe could be placed in the OGJ and the balloon distensions revealed the geometry of the sphincter at various levels of distension. The technique may be useful in accessing the role of the OGJ in diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and achalasia and their treatments with surgical and endoscopic therapies.
A method to evaluate the three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the human gastrointestinal wall may be valuable for understanding tissue biomechanics, mechano-sensation and function. In this paper we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based method to determine rectal geometry and validation of data obtained in three volunteers. A specially designed rectal bag was filled in a stepwise manner while MRI and bag pressure were recorded. 3-D models of curvatures, radii of curvature, tension and stress were generated and the circumferential and longitudinal strains were calculated. The computed bag volumes corresponded to the infused volumes. A pronounced bag elongation and decrease in wall thickness was observed during the bag filling. The spatial distributions of the biomechanical parameters were distinctly different between individuals and non-homogeneous throughout the rectal wall due to its complex geometry. The average tension and stress increased as a function of infused volume and circumferential strain. The present study provides a method for characterizing the complex in vivo 3-D geometry of the human rectum. The non-homogenous spatial curvature distribution suggests that simple estimates of tension based on pressure and volume do not reflect the true 3-D biomechanical properties of the rectum.
This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a cathetermounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular.
The objective of this study was to develop an analytical method to describe the three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the gastric antrum, gastric fundus and the whole stomach. The Fourier series method was used to simulate the organ surface geometry obtained from a 3-D ultrasound system. Data generated from eight antrums and three whole stomachs, at pressures of approximately 7 cm H(2)O, were used for lumen curvature calculations. The principal curvatures spatial distributions were non-homogeneous in the gastric antrum, gastric fundus and the stomach due to their complex geometry. The maximum longitudinal principal curvature in the antrum, fundus and total stomach were, respectively, 0.460 +/- 0.066, 0.583 +/- 0.087 and 1.123 +/- 0.328, whereas the maximum circumferential curvature were 1.192 +/- 0.090, 3.649 +/- 1.574 and 8.444 +/- 3.424, respectively. The present study provides an analytical tool for characterizing the complex 3-D geometry of an organ-like the human stomach reconstructed by clinical imaging modalities. Providing an average tension for the stomach does not reflect the large variation in tension throughout the stomach wall.
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