Restriction factors, such as the retroviral complementary DNA deaminase APOBEC3G, are cellular proteins that dominantly block virus replication1-3. The AIDS virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), produces the accessory factor Vif, which counteracts the host’s antiviral defence by hijacking a ubiquitin ligase complex, containing CUL5, ELOC, ELOB and a RING-box protein, and targeting APOBEC3G for degradation4-10. Here we reveal, using an affinity tag/purification mass spectrometry approach, that Vif additionally recruits the transcription cofactor CBF-β to this ubiquitin ligase complex. CBF-β, which normally functions in concert with RUNX DNA binding proteins, allows the reconstitution of a recombinant six-protein assembly that elicits specific polyubiquitination activity with APOBEC3G, but not the related deaminase APOBEC3A. Using RNA knockdown and genetic complementation studies, we also demonstrate that CBF-β is required for Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G and therefore for preserving HIV-1 infectivity. Finally, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Vif also binds to and requires CBF-β to degrade rhesus macaque APOBEC3G, indicating functional conservation. Methods of disrupting the CBF-β–Vif interaction might enable HIV-1 restriction and provide a supplement to current antiviral therapies that primarily target viral proteins.
Nanostructured semiconducting metal oxides and particularly single nanowire devices offer exceptional gas sensitivity but at the expense of statistical variations and excessive noise levels. In this study TiO2/poly(vinyl acetate) composite nanofiber mats were directly electrospun onto interdigitated Pt electrode arrays, hot pressed at 120 degrees C, and calcined at 450 degrees C. This resulted in a novel multiple nanowire network composed of sheaths of 200-500 nm diameter cores filled with readily gas accessible approximately 10 nm thick single-crystal anatase fibrils. TiO2 nanofiber sensors tested for NO2, in dry air, exhibited exceptional sensitivity showing with, for example, a 833% increase in sensor resistance when exposed to 500 ppb NO2 at 300 degrees C, consistent with a detection limit estimated to be well below 1 ppb. Unusual response patterns were observed at high NO2 concentrations (> 12.5 ppm), consistent with n to p inversion of the surface-trap limited conduction facilitated by the high surface-to-volume ratio of this material.
We have investigated various types of π-interactions, where one of the interacting π-systems is represented by an aromatic benzene molecule. The system includes Rg-π, CH-π, π-π(D), π-π(T), H-π(T), π(+)-π(D), π(+)-π(T), H(+)-π(T), π(+2)-π(D), M(+)-π, and M(+2)-π complexes, where Rg denotes a rare gas or noble atom, M denotes a metal, and D/T indicates displaced-stacked/T-shaped structure. The microsolvation effect is also considered. We note that the interaction between a cationic π system and a neutral π system (πcation-π interaction) is so far ambiguously considered as either π-π or cation-π interaction. In terms of total binding energy, the πcation-π interaction is weaker than the cation-π interaction, but much stronger than the π-π interaction. When the hydrophilic (N-H)(+) or (C-H)(+) group in a singly charged π(+) system (as in protonated histidine, arginine, pyridine, or dimethyl imidazolium) interacts with a π-system, the complex favors a T-shaped form [π(+)-π(T) complex]. However, in the presence of polar solvating molecules or counteranions, these species interact with the (N-H)(+)/(C-H)(+) group, while the π(+) system interacts with the neutral aromatic ring. Then, the displaced-stacked form [π(+)-π(D) complex] is favored or otherwise nearly isoenergetic to the π(+)-π(T) form. The π(+)-π systems are stabilized mainly by both dispersion and electrostatic energies. Ternary diagrams using either attractive energy components or both attractive and repulsive energy components show that the π(+)-π(D) complexes have more contribution from dispersion energy but less contribution from induction energy than the π(+)-π(T) complexes, while both complexes have similar percentage contributions from electrostatic and exchange energy components. In particular, the π(+)-π(D) complexes are found to be distinctly different from the π-π complexes and the non-π organic or metallic cation-π complexes.
N-doped porous carbon produced via chemical activation of polypyrrole functionalized graphene sheets shows selective adsorption of CO(2) (4.3 mmol g(-1)) over N(2) (0.27 mmol g(-1)) at 298 K. The potential for large scale production and facile regeneration makes this material useful for industrial applications.
Water-soluble, polyelectrolyte-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), MWCNT-g-PSSNa, were synthesized using a "grafting to" route. MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin films fabricated by an electrostatic spray (e-spray) technique were used as the counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The e-sprayed MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin-film-based CEs (MWCNT-CE) were uniform over a large area, and the well-exfoliated MWCNTs formed highly interconnected network structures. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the MWCNT-CE at different thicknesses was investigated. The MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin film showed high efficiency as a CE in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs using the MWCNT-g-PSSNa thin-film-based CE (DSSC-MWCNT) was >6% at a CE film thickness of approximately 0.3 microm. The optimum PCE was >7% at a film thickness of approximately 1 microm, which is 20-50 times thinner than conventional carbon-based CE. The charge transfer resistance at the MWCNT-CE/electrolyte interface was 1.52 Omega cm(2) at a MWCNT-CE thickness of 0.31 microm, which is lower than that of a Pt-CE/electrolyte interface, 1.78 Omega cm(2). This highlights the potential for the low-cost CE fabrication of DSSCs using a facile deposition technique from an environmentally "friendly" solution at low temperatures.
High temperature requirement A (HtrA) and its homologues constitute the HtrA familiy proteins, a group of heat shock-induced serine proteases. Bacterial HtrA proteins perform crucial functions with regard to protein quality control in the periplasmic space, functioning as both molecular chaperones and proteases. In contrast to other bacterial quality control proteins, including ClpXP, ClpAP, and HslUV, HtrA proteins contain no regulatory components or ATP binding domains. Thus, they are commonly referred to as ATP-independent chaperoneproteases. Whereas the function of ATP-dependent chaperone-proteases is regulated by ATP hydrolysis, HtrA exhibits a PDZ domain and a temperature-dependent switch mechanism, which effects the change in its function from molecular chaperone to protease. This mechanism is also related to substrate recognition and the fine control of its function. Structural and biochemical analyses of the three HtrA proteins, DegP, DegQ, and DegS, have provided us with clues as to the functional regulation of HtrA proteins, as well as their roles in protein quality control at atomic scales. The objective of this brief review is to discuss some of the recent studies which have been conducted regarding the structure and function of these HtrA proteins, and to compare their roles in the context of protein quality control.
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