Recent developments in high-density lithium-ion battery technologies have greatly expanded the electric vehicle (EV) market. Due to the fact that the rapid charging of an EV battery pack while maintaining a suitable cell cycle life is necessary for further growth of the EV market, we herein propose an innovative adaptive rapid charging pattern that minimizes cell degradation and reflects the degradation characteristics. This technology is advantageous in that cells can be developed by analyzing the charging characteristics in the latter stages of cell development of the rapid charging pattern, while also considering the complexity and heterogeneity of the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the battery charging pattern is optimized and controlled in real-time by reflecting the characteristics of the battery module and pack degradation as the cycle number is increased. More specifically, we present a preliminary study that simplifies the implementation of the new optimization pattern to improve the cell cycle life by over 45% in comparison to conventional fast charging patterns, and to address the drop in capacity in the latter half of cell life during rapid charging.
In this paper, we propose a rapid-charging system for the lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs used in electric forklifts. The battery offers three benefits: reduced charge time, prolonged battery life, and increased charging efficiency. A rapid-charging algorithm and DC/DC converter topology are proposed to achieve these benefits. This algorithm is developed using an electrochemical model, which controls the maximum charging current limit depending on the cell voltage and temperature. The experimental use of a selected 18650 LIB cell verified the prolongation of battery life on use of the algorithm. The proposed converter offers the same topological merits as a conventional resonant converter but solves the light-load regulation problem of conventional resonant converters by adopting pulse-width modulation. A 6.6-kW converter and charging algorithm were used with a forklift battery pack to verify this method's operational principles and advantages.
A evaluation for the strength of rock includes a lot of uncertainty due to existence of discontinuity surface and weakness plain in the rock mass, so essential test results and other data for the resonable strength analysis are absolutely insufficient. Therefore, a analytical technique to reduce such uncertainty can be required. A probabilistic analysis technique has mainly to make up for the uncertainty to investigate the strength of rock mass. Recently, a artificial neural networks, as a more newly analysis method to solve several problems in the existing analysis methodology, trends to apply to study on the rock strength. In this study the unconfined compressive strength from basic physical property values of sedimentary rock, black shale and red shale, distributed in Daegu metropolitan area is estimated, using the artificial neural networks. And the applicability of the analysis method is investigated. From the results, it is confirmed that the unconfined compressive strength of the sedimentary rock can be easily and efficiently predicted by the analysis technique with the artificial neural networks.
An internal friction angle, which is one of strength parameters of granular soils, can be obtained from direct shear tests or triaxial tests. The result of traixial tests can be influenced by various experimental conditions such as confining pressure, shearing rate, specimen diameter and height, and end constraint. In this study, undrained and drained shearing behaviors of Nakdong River sand were investigated for loose (Dr = 40%) and dense (Dr = 80%) specimens with 5, 7, and 10 cm in diameter. Friction angles such as undrained total stress friction angle, undrained effective stress friction angle, and drained friction angle obtained from Mohr's stress circle slightly increased and then decreased as a diameter of a specimen increased from 5, 7 to 10 cm, regardless of relative densities. The difference between friction angles caused by different specimen size was at maximum 4.5 degrees for undrained total stress friction angle of dense specimen.In most cases, there was little difference between friction angles of large and small specimens, which was less than 2 degrees. The difference between an effective friction angle from undrained tests and a drained friction angle from drained tests was at maximum 7 degrees for loose samples but negligible for dense samples.
The purpose of this study, is to separate magnetic separation devices using permanent magnets by using magnetization characteristics remaining in treated water after adsorption and synthesizing phosphorus adsorbent capable of magnetic separation for efficient removal of phosphorus. The synthesis of the adsorbent which set Zirconium(Zr) having high friendly features for phosphorus as an element, and by synthesizing Iron Oxide(Fe 3 O 4 , another name of Fe 3 O 4 is magnetite) being able to grant magnetism to Zirconium Sulfate(Zr(SO 4 ) 2 ), zirconium magnetic adsorbent(ZM) were manufactured. In order to consider the phosphorus adsorption characteristics of adsorbent ZM, batch adsorption experiment was performed, and based on the results, pH effect, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, and magnetic separation have been explore. As the experiment result, adsorbent ZM showed a tendency that the adsorption number was decreased rapidly at pH 13; however, it was showed a high amount of phosphorus removal in other range and it showed the highest amount of phosphorus removal in pH 6 of neutral range. In addtion, the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model is matched well, and D-R adsorption isotherm model is ranged 14.43kJ/mol indicating ion exchange mechanism. The result shown adsorption kinetics match well to the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorbent ZM ' s capablility of regenerating NaOH and H 2 SO 4 , was high selectivity on the phosphorus without impacts on the other anions. The results of applying the treated water after adsorption of phosphorus to the magnetic separation device by using permanent magnets, shows that capture of the adsorbent by the magnetization filter was perfect. And they show the possibility of utilization on the phosphorus removal in water.
A vane shear test (VST) is a simple testing method for determining an undrained shear strength of cohesive soils by minimizing soil disturbance. In this study, the VST was used to determine a shear strength of sand. Dry Nakdong River sand was prepared for loose and dense conditions in a cell and then pressurized with 25, 50, 75 or 100 kPa from the surface of sand. A vane (5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in height) was rotated and a torque was measured within sand. When a torque moment by vane and friction resistance moment by sand is assumed to be equalized, a friction angle can be obtained. When a vane rotates within clay, a uniform undrained shear strength is assumed to be acting on cylindrical failure surface. On the other hand, when it is applied for sand, the failure shape can be assumed to be an octagonal or square column. The relationship between measured torque and resistant force along assumed failure shapes due to friction of sand was derived and the internal friction angle of sand was determined for loose and dense conditions. For the same soil condition, a series of direct shear test was carried out and compared with VST result. The friction angle from VST was between 24-42 degrees for loose sand and 33-53 degrees for dense sand. This is similar to those of direct shear tests.
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