ObjectiveThe best approach for Helicobacter pylori management remains unclear. An audit process is essential to ensure clinical practice is aligned with best standards of care.DesignInternational multicentre prospective non-interventional registry starting in 2013 aimed to evaluate the decisions and outcomes in H. pylori management by European gastroenterologists. Patients were registered in an e-CRF by AEG-REDCap. Variables included demographics, previous eradication attempts, prescribed treatment, adverse events and outcomes. Data monitoring was performed to ensure data quality. Time-trend and geographical analyses were performed.Results30 394 patients from 27 European countries were evaluated and 21 533 (78%) first-line empirical H. pylori treatments were included for analysis. Pretreatment resistance rates were 23% to clarithromycin, 32% to metronidazole and 13% to both. Triple therapy with amoxicillin and clarithromycin was most commonly prescribed (39%), achieving 81.5% modified intention-to-treat eradication rate. Over 90% eradication was obtained only with 10-day bismuth quadruple or 14-day concomitant treatments. Longer treatment duration, higher acid inhibition and compliance were associated with higher eradication rates. Time-trend analysis showed a region-dependent shift in prescriptions including abandoning triple therapies, using higher acid-inhibition and longer treatments, which was associated with an overall effectiveness increase (84%–90%).ConclusionManagement of H. pylori infection by European gastroenterologists is heterogeneous, suboptimal and discrepant with current recommendations. Only quadruple therapies lasting at least 10 days are able to achieve over 90% eradication rates. European recommendations are being slowly and heterogeneously incorporated into routine clinical practice, which was associated with a corresponding increase in effectiveness.
This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and the potential modes of transmission. In addition to English language publications, the authors have included original full‐text publications from Russia and Latin America published in the original languages. High H pylori prevalence has been reported in Russia, Jordan, Iran, China, and Latin American countries as well as in Arctic populations in Canada. Indigenous inhabitants in the Arctic were found to be infected substantially more frequently than non‐indigenous inhabitants. In Amsterdam, the Netherlands, the ethnic minority groups were at a significantly higher risk of being H pylori seropositive compared to the Dutch population. For the first time, data on the prevalence from Armenia have been published indicating 41.5% H pylori prevalence. Convincing evidence on the decline of H pylori prevalence in Southeast Hungary and Taiwan was published. A study from Chile suggested high infection rates in newborns during the first month after birth. Two meta‐analyses covered the potential correlation between H pylori and periodontal diseases, therefore addressing the potential oro‐oral transmission rates. Periodontal disease was found to be more prevalent in H pylori‐infected subjects. Other studies addressed the potential role of drinking water and food products as well as socioeconomic factors in transmitting the infection. Several studies in Asia addressed annual reinfection rates of H pylori, ranging from 1.5% in China to 3.1% in Korea. Finally, a review was published on the current evidence and future perspective of analysing H pylori in ancient human remains by a metagenomic approach.
The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the variety of gastroduodenal diseases caused by this pathogen necessitate the use of only accurate methods both for the primary diagnosis and for monitoring the eradication effectiveness. There is a broad spectrum of diagnostic methods available for detecting H. pylori. All methods can be classified as invasive or non-invasive. The need for upper endoscopy, different clinical circumstances, sensitivity and specificity, and accessibility defines the method chosen. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the current options and novel developments in diagnostic tests for H. pylori detection. The progress in endoscopic modalities has made it possible not only to diagnose precancerous lesions and early gastric cancer but also to predict H. pylori infection in real time. The contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation technologies in the diagnosis of H. pylori such as visual endoscopy using blue laser imaging (BLI), linked color imaging (LCI), and magnifying endoscopy is discussed. Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of artificial intelligence to predict H. pylori status based on endoscopic images. Non-invasive diagnostic tests such as the urea breathing test and stool antigen test are recommended for primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serology can be used for initial screening and epidemiological studies. The histology showed its value in detecting H. pylori and provided more information about the degree of gastric mucosa inflammation and precancerous lesions. Molecular methods are mainly used in detecting antibiotic resistance of H. pylori. Cultures from gastric biopsies are the gold standard and recommended for antibiotic susceptibility tests.
Background: Bacterial antibiotic resistance changes over time depending on multiple factors; therefore, it is essential to monitor the susceptibility trends to reduce the resistance impact on the effectiveness of various treatments. Objective: To conduct a time-trend analysis of Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe. Methods: The international prospective European Registry on Helicobacter pylori Management (Hp-EuReg) collected data on all infected adult patients diagnosed with culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing positive results that were registered at AEG-REDCap e-CRF until December 2020. Results: Overall, 41,562 patients were included in the Hp-EuReg. Culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on gastric biopsies of 3974 (9.5%) patients, of whom 2852 (7%) were naive cases included for analysis. The number of positive cultures decreased by 35% from the period 2013–2016 to 2017–2020. Concerning naïve patients, no antibiotic resistance was found in 48% of the cases. The most frequent resistances were reported against metronidazole (30%), clarithromycin (25%), and levofloxacin (20%), whereas resistances to tetracycline and amoxicillin were below 1%. Dual and triple resistances were found in 13% and 6% of the cases, respectively. A decrease (p < 0.001) in the metronidazole resistance rate was observed between the 2013–2016 (33%) and 2017–2020 (24%) periods. Conclusion: Culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori are scarcely performed (<10%) in Europe. In naïve patients, Helicobacter pylori resistance to clarithromycin remained above 15% throughout the period 2013–2020 and resistance to levofloxacin, as well as dual or triple resistances, were high. A progressive decrease in metronidazole resistance was observed.
Brglez Jurecic 14 | José María Huguet 15 | Noelia Alcaide 16 | Irina Voynovan 17 | José María Botargues Bote 18 | Inés Modolell 19 | Jorge Pérez Lasala 20 | Inés Ariño 21 | Laimas Jonaitis 22 | Manuel Dominguez-Cajal 23 | György Buzas 24 | Frode Lerang 25 | Monica Perona 26 | Dmitry Bordin 17 | Toni Axon 27 | Antonio Gasbarrini 28 | Ricardo Marcos Pinto 29 | Yaron Niv 30 | Limas Kupcinskas 22 | Ante Tonkic 31 | Marcis Leja 32 | Theodore Rokkas 33 | Lyudmila Boyanova 34 | Oleg Shvets 35 | Marino Venerito 36 | Peter Bytzer 37 | Adrian Goldis 38 | Ilkay Simsek 39 | Vincent Lamy 40 | Krzysztof Przytulski 41 | Lumír Kunovský 42 | Lisette Capelle 43 | Tomica Milosavljevic 44 | María Caldas 1 | Ana Garre 1 | Francis Mégraud 45 | Colm O'Morain 46 | Javier P. Gisbert 1 | On behalf of the Hp-EuReg Investigators Abstract Background: Experience in Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment of patients allergic to penicillin is very scarce. A triple combination with a PPI, clarithromycin (C), and metronidazole (M) is often prescribed as the first option, although more recently the use of a quadruple therapy with PPI, bismuth (B), tetracycline (T), and M has been recommended. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of first-line and rescue treatments in patients allergic to penicillin in the "European Registry of H pylori management" (Hp-EuReg). Methods: A systematic prospective registry of the clinical practice of European gastroenterologists (27 countries, 300 investigators) on the management of H pylori infection. An e-CRF was created on AEG-REDCap. Patients with penicillin allergy were analyzed until June 2019. Results: One-thousand eighty-four patients allergic to penicillin were analyzed. The Additional supporting information may be found online in the Supporting Information section. How to cite this article: Nyssen OP, Perez-Aisa Á, Tepes B, et al; On behalf of the Hp-EuReg Investigators. Helicobacter pylori first-line and rescue treatments in patients allergic to penicillin: Experience from the European Registry on H pylori management (Hp-EuReg). Helicobacter. 2020;25:e12686.
The multicenter prospective observational study initiated by the European Helicobacter and Microbiota Study Group (EHMSG) is conducted in 27 countries in Europe. The data from the Russian part of the European registry for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection (European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, protocol: “Hp-EuReg”) allows us to analyze the real clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori and compare it with international recommendations. Materials and methods. A comparative analysis of the data entered in the register by the Russian research centers “Hp-EuReg”, in the period from 2013 to 2018, was conducted. Results and discussion. Invasive diagnostic methods prevail for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori [histology - 20.3% (in 2013 year) - 43.9% (in 2018 year), rapid urease test - 31.7% and 47.8% respectively]. The most popular mode of eradication therapy is a 10-day triple therapy (62.8-76.2%), the effectiveness of which does not exceed 79% (per protocol). Invasive tests (histology) are the leading method for control the effectiveness of therapy, however, there is a tendency towards a wider use of non-invasive methods (H. pylori stool antigen - from 17% in 2013 to 29.3% in 2018 and urea breath test from 6.9 to 18.3%, respectively). Serological test to control the effectiveness of eradication is still used from 8.2% (2013) to 6.1% (2018). Eradication therapy was not performed in 28% of patients throughout the entire observation period. Conclusion. In Russia, despite approved domestic and international recommendations, deviations in clinical practice persist, both during eradication therapy and in monitoring the effectiveness of eradication therapy.
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