In spite of a growing body of research and data, human ageing remains a poorly understood process. Over 10 years ago we developed the Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR), a collection of databases and tools for studying the biology and genetics of ageing. Here, we present HAGR’s main functionalities, highlighting new additions and improvements. HAGR consists of six core databases: (i) the GenAge database of ageing-related genes, in turn composed of a dataset of >300 human ageing-related genes and a dataset with >2000 genes associated with ageing or longevity in model organisms; (ii) the AnAge database of animal ageing and longevity, featuring >4000 species; (iii) the GenDR database with >200 genes associated with the life-extending effects of dietary restriction; (iv) the LongevityMap database of human genetic association studies of longevity with >500 entries; (v) the DrugAge database with >400 ageing or longevity-associated drugs or compounds; (vi) the CellAge database with >200 genes associated with cell senescence. All our databases are manually curated by experts and regularly updated to ensure a high quality data. Cross-links across our databases and to external resources help researchers locate and integrate relevant information. HAGR is freely available online (http://genomics.senescence.info/).
In spite of a growing body of research and data, human ageing remains a poorly understood process. To facilitate studies of ageing, over 10 years ago we developed the Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR), which are now the leading online resource for biogerontologists. In this update, we present HAGR's main functionalities, including new additions and improvements to HAGR. HAGR consists of five databases: 1) the GenAge database of ageing-related genes, in turn composed of a dataset of >300 human ageing-related genes and a dataset with >2000 genes associated with ageing or longevity in model organisms; 2) the AnAge database of animal ageing and longevity, featuring >4000 species; 3) the GenDR database with >200 genes associated with the life-extending effects of dietary restriction; 4) the LongevityMap database of human genetic association studies of longevity with >500 entries; 5) the DrugAge database with >400 ageing or longevity-associated drugs or compounds; 6) the CellAge database with >200 genes associated with cell senescence. All our databases are manually curated by experts to ensure a high quality data and presented in an intuitive and clear interface that includes cross-links across our databases and to external resources. HAGR is freely available online (http://genomics.senescence.info/).
One important question in aging research is how differences in genomics and transcriptomics determine the maximum lifespan in various species. Despite recent progress, much is still unclear on the topic, partly due to the lack of samples in nonmodel organisms and due to challenges in direct comparisons of transcriptomes from different species. The novel ranking‐based method that we employ here is used to analyze gene expression in the gray whale and compare its de novo assembled transcriptome with that of other long‐ and short‐lived mammals. Gray whales are among the top 1% longest‐lived mammals. Despite the extreme environment, or maybe due to a remarkable adaptation to its habitat (intermittent hypoxia, Arctic water, and high pressure), gray whales reach at least the age of 77 years. In this work, we show that long‐lived mammals share common gene expression patterns between themselves, including high expression of DNA maintenance and repair, ubiquitination, apoptosis, and immune responses. Additionally, the level of expression for gray whale orthologs of pro‐ and anti‐longevity genes found in model organisms is in support of their alleged role and direction in lifespan determination. Remarkably, among highly expressed pro‐longevity genes many are stress‐related, reflecting an adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. The conducted analysis suggests that the gray whale potentially possesses high resistance to cancer and stress, at least in part ensuring its longevity. This new transcriptome assembly also provides important resources to support the efforts of maintaining the endangered population of gray whales.
Mitochondria are the only organelles in the animal cells that have their own genome. Due to a key role in energy production, generation of damaging factors (ROS, heat), and apoptosis, mitochondria and mtDNA in particular have long been considered one of the major players in the mechanisms of aging, longevity and age-related diseases. The rapidly increasing number of species with fully sequenced mtDNA, together with accumulated data on longevity records, provides a new fascinating basis for comparative analysis of the links between mtDNA features and animal longevity. To facilitate such analyses and to support the scientific community in carrying these out, we developed the MitoAge database containing calculated mtDNA compositional features of the entire mitochondrial genome, mtDNA coding (tRNA, rRNA, protein-coding genes) and non-coding (D-loop) regions, and codon usage/amino acids frequency for each protein-coding gene. MitoAge includes 922 species with fully sequenced mtDNA and maximum lifespan records. The database is available through the MitoAge website (www.mitoage.org or www.mitoage.info), which provides the necessary tools for searching, browsing, comparing and downloading the data sets of interest for selected taxonomic groups across the Kingdom Animalia. The MitoAge website assists in statistical analysis of different features of the mtDNA and their correlative links to longevity.
Does the longevity phenotype offer an advantage in wound healing (WH)? In an attempt to answer this question, we explored skin wound healing in the long-lived transgenic αMUPA mice, a unique model of genetically extended life span. These mice spontaneously eat less, preserve their body mass, are more resistant to spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis and live longer, thus greatly mimicking the effects of caloric restriction (CR). We found that αMUPA mice showed a much slower age-related decline in the rate of WH than their wild-type counterparts (FVB/N). After full closure of the wound, gene expression in the skin of old αMUPA mice returned close to basal levels. In contrast, old FVB/N mice still exhibited significant upregulation of genes associated with growth-promoting pathways, apoptosis and cell-cell/cell-extra cellular matrix interaction, indicating an ongoing tissue remodeling or an inability to properly shut down the repair process. It appears that the CR-like longevity phenotype is associated with more balanced and efficient WH mechanisms in old age, which could ensure a long-term survival advantage.
BackgroundGray whale, Eschrichtius robustus (E. robustus), is a single member of the family Eschrichtiidae, which is considered to be the most primitive in the class Cetacea. Gray whale is often described as a “living fossil”. It is adapted to extreme marine conditions and has a high life expectancy (77 years). The assembly of a gray whale genome and transcriptome will allow to carry out further studies of whale evolution, longevity, and resistance to extreme environment.ResultsIn this work, we report the first de novo assembly and primary analysis of the E. robustus genome and transcriptome based on kidney and liver samples. The presented draft genome assembly is complete by 55% in terms of a total genome length, but only by 24% in terms of the BUSCO complete gene groups, although 10,895 genes were identified. Transcriptome annotation and comparison with other whale species revealed robust expression of DNA repair and hypoxia-response genes, which is expected for whales.ConclusionsThis preliminary study of the gray whale genome and transcriptome provides new data to better understand the whale evolution and the mechanisms of their adaptation to the hypoxic conditions.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/s12862-017-1103-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
If somatic stem cells would be able to maintain their regenerative capacity over time, this might, to a great extent, resolve rejuvenation issues. Unfortunately, the pool of somatic stem cells is limited, and they undergo cell aging with a consequent loss of functionality. During the last decade, low molecular weight compounds that are able to induce or enhance cell reprogramming have been reported. They were named “Small Molecules” (SMs) and might present definite advantages compared to the exogenous introduction of stemness-related transcription factors (e.g. Yamanaka’s factors). Here, we undertook a systemic analysis of SMs and their potential gene targets. Data mining and curation lead to the identification of 92 SMs. The SM targets fall into three major functional categories: epigenetics, cell signaling, and metabolic “switchers”. All these categories appear to be required in each SM cocktail to induce cell reprogramming. Remarkably, many enriched pathways of SM targets are related to aging, longevity, and age-related diseases, thus connecting them with cell reprogramming. The network analysis indicates that SM targets are highly interconnected and form protein-protein networks of a scale-free topology. The extremely high contribution of hubs to network connectivity suggests that (i) cell reprogramming may require SM targets to act cooperatively, and (ii) their network organization might ensure robustness by resistance to random failures. All in all, further investigation of SMs and their relationship with longevity regulators will be helpful for developing optimal SM cocktails for cell reprogramming with a perspective for rejuvenation and life span extension.
Interventional studies on genetic modulators of longevity have significantly changed gerontology. While available lifespan data are continually accumulating, further understanding of the aging process is still limited by the poor understanding of epistasis and of the non-linear interactions between multiple longevity-associated genes. Unfortunately, based on observations so far, there is no simple method to predict the cumulative impact of genes on lifespan. As a step towards applying predictive methods, but also to provide information for a guided design of epistasis lifespan experiments, we developed SynergyAge - a database containing genetic and lifespan data for animal models obtained through multiple longevity-modulating interventions. The studies included in SynergyAge focus on the lifespan of animal strains which are modified by at least two genetic interventions, with single gene mutants included as reference. SynergyAge, which is publicly available at www.synergyage.info, provides an easy to use web-platform for browsing, searching and filtering through the data, as well as a network-based interactive module for visualization and analysis.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.