Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de cerrado Acta bot. bras. 16(1): 43-53, 2002 43 RESUMO -RESUMO -RESUMO -RESUMO -RESUMO -(Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de cerrado sensu stricto no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goiás) A necessidade de se conhecer mais sobre o Bioma Cerrado torna-se cada vez mais urgente, devido à destruição acelerada deste bioma. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto, no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, registrando as espécies arbóreas e arbustivas, utilizando o método de Point Centered Quarter. Verificou-se que apesar de algumas diferenças litológicas, latossolo vermelho-escuro na primeira área e vermelho-amarelo na segunda, a similaridade entre elas foi alta, com índices de Jaccard (0,72) e Morisita (0,64). Das 67 espécies pertencentes a 51 gêneros e 29 famílias, 48 foram comuns às duas áreas. Kielmeyera coriacea, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense, Syagrus flexuosa e Ouratea hexasperma tiveram os maiores Índices de Valor de Importância na primeira área e Pouteria ramiflora, Qualea parviflora, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense e Vochysia cinamommea, foram as espécies de maior importância na segunda área. A família Vochysiaceae foi a de maior IVI em ambas as áreas e Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (15), seguindo Vochysiaceae (7), Apocynaceae (5) e Myrtaceae (4). P P P P Pala ala ala ala alavras-cha vras-cha vras-cha vras-cha vras-chav v v v ve -eeee -florística, fitossociologia, cerrado, Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas ABSTRA ABSTRA ABSTRA ABSTRA ABSTRACT -CT -CT -CT -CT -(Floristic and phytosociology inventory in two areas of "Cerrado" stricto sensu in the Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goiás). The need to know more about "Bioma Cerrado" becomes more and more urgent, due to the accelerated destruction of this "Biome". The objective of this work was to conduct a floristic inventory in two areas of Cerrado " stricto sensu ", in the Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas. Arboreal and shruby species were registered, using the Point Centered Quarter Method. It was verified that in spite of some litologic differences, dark red latossoil in the first area and red yellow latossoil in the second one, the two areas showed high similarity, showed by Jaccard's index (0,72) and Morisita's index (0,64). 67 species belonging to 51 genera and 29 families, were identified, 48 species common to both areas. Kielmeyera coriacea,
ABSTRACT. Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Silvester, 1901) builds arboreal nests in Brazilian Cerrado stricto sensu, which are frequently cohabited by inquilines termites and by termitophiles. In a study made at the Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brazil, there were four nests with multiple reproductives, and secondary reproductives were found in 26 nests. Nymphs of Inquilinitermes were more abundant (9,47%) than nymphs of C. cyphergaster (0,78%).
Declines in anuran populations worldwide are increasingly creating demands for quick and urgent strategies to maximize efforts to conserve amphibian populations, especially in areas in which few detailed data on diversity, abundance and distribution are available, such as the Cerrado of Central Brazil. We used extent of occurrence of 105 species of Anura (Amphibia) in the Cerrado region to establish a regional system of potential areas that preserves all anuran species in the region, at a macroecological scale. The nal network, obtained using a simple "greedy" algorithm based on complementarity, has a total of 10 regions, widely distributed in the biome. These areas were also evaluated in terms of their human demographic parameters (human population size and growth rate). Strong spatial autocorrelation in species richness indicates that alternative systems based on pre-existing conservation units will also be ef cient in terms of biodiversity conservation. Although macro-scale approaches are usually coarse, they can provide overall guidelines for conservation and de ne the focus for more local and effective conservation efforts, which is particularly important when dealing with a taxonomic group such as anurans for which quick and drastic population declines have been reported in many regions of the world.
Termites (Isoptera) are one of the most abundant soil invertebrates in tropical ecosystems (Wilson, 1971; Wood & Sands, 1978; Eggleton et al., 1996) and the most important soil ecosystem engineers of these environments (Bignell, 2006; Jouquet et al., 2011). In some arid and semi-arid tropical savannas, during the dry season, termites are the only active group of invertebrates able to decompose organic matter (Jouquet et al., 2011) and provide ecosystem services such as soil formation and aeration (Lavelle et al., 2006). Most species of termites are tropical, and among more than 2800 described
ABSTRACT. Distribution patterns of termites on urban region of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. A survey of Isoptera pest species in Goiânia, Goiás Brazil about your distribution was related with some environmental factors. A sampling in 600 buildings of different ages located in 20 districts, and the main types of original vegetation was analysed. Four termite species were registered. The analysis showed that the association between infestation frequency and the type of original vegetation has low significance; and between the buildings and districts age has high significance; and neighbouring trees were not an important cause in the distribution pattern of the termites.KEYWORDS. Isoptera, building age, urban fauna, Nasutitermes, Cerrado region. RESUMO.Foi realizado um levantamento das espécies de cupins em Goiânia, GO, que constituem praga e sua distribuição foi relacionada com alguns fatores ambientais. Realizou-se uma amostragem em 600 edificações de várias idades localizadas em 20 bairros, e analisaramse os principais tipos de vegetação original. Foram registradas quatro espécies de cupins. As análises mostraram que a associação entre a frequência de infestação e o tipo de vegetação original apresentou baixa significância; e entre as idades dos bairros e das edificações apresentou alta significância e constatou-se que árvores próximas não podem ser consideradas uma causa importante do padrão de distribuição dos cupins.
ABSTRACT. Abundace and body size distribution of invertebrates of leaf litter in Amazonian forest, Brazil. Based on 605 invertebrates sampled of the litter in an Amazonian Forest, some basic macroecological patterns for this assemblage were described. The relationship between abundance and body size, at logarithmic scale, was triangular, and the distribution of species was constrained in an asymmetric triangular envelope, that was tested using null model procedures in ECOSIM (P= 0,0002). The most abundant species were at an intermediated body size. The relationship between maximum abundance with different mean body size classes confirmed the Energetic Equivalent Rule (b = -1,069; t -0,75 = -2,13; P = 0.079). This way, species tend to consume energy from the community independent of their body size, since requirements are compensated by local population density.
Giant (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) and collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) are common mammals in the Cerrado biome. They are specialized in eating termites (Isoptera, Blattaria) and ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). This study tested the preference of the giant anteater for termites with different defense strategies: 1) soldier with chemical defense and a soft nest (Nasutitermes), and 2) soldier with mixed defenses-chemical and mechanical-and a hard nest (Cornitermes). Pieces of nests of both genera of termites were provided to captive giant anteaters, their behaviors were observed, and the time spent feeding in each termite nests was recorded. The anteaters exploited both termite species, although no significance difference was found, they spent more time feeding on Cornitermes than on Nasutitermes. The stomach contents of one road-killed giant anteater and one collared anteater were analyzed. The collared anteater fed on a wider diversity of termite species with different defense strategies, but showed a preference for Cornitermes. We argue that the preference of anteaters for a termite species that has a harder nest, and soldiers with mixed defense, may be due to the presence of terpenoids in the chemical apparatus of Nasutitermes, absent in Cornitermes. Also, the much higher proportion of soldiers in Nasutitermes may influence the anteaters' choice.
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