The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a rules-based synthesis of the available evidence on levels and trends in health outcomes, a diverse set of risk factors, and health system responses. GBD 2019 covered 204 countries and territories, as well as first administrative level disaggregations for 22 countries, from 1990 to 2019. Because GBD is highly standardised and comprehensive, spanning both fatal and non-fatal outcomes, and uses a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of hierarchical disease and injury causes, the study provides a powerful basis for detailed and broad insights on global health trends and emerging challenges. GBD 2019 incorporates data from 281 586 sources and provides more than 3•5 billion estimates of health outcome and health system measures of interest for global, national, and subnational policy dialogue. All GBD estimates are publicly available and adhere to the Guidelines on Accurate and Transparent Health Estimate Reporting. From this vast amount of information, five key insights that are important for health, social, and economic development strategies have been distilled. These insights are subject to the many limitations outlined in each of the component GBD capstone papers.
Background Oesophageal cancer is a common and often fatal cancer that has two main histological subtypes: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Updated statistics on the incidence and mortality of oesophageal cancer, and on the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by the disease, can assist policy makers in allocating resources for prevention, treatment, and care of oesophageal cancer. We report the latest estimates of these statistics for 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, by age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD). MethodsWe used data from vital registration systems, vital registration-samples, verbal autopsy records, and cancer registries, combined with relevant modelling, to estimate the mortality, incidence, and burden of oesophageal cancer from 1990 to 2017. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) were estimated and fed into a Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) including risk factors. MIRs were used for mortality and non-fatal modelling. Estimates of DALYs attributable to the main risk factors of oesophageal cancer available in GBD were also calculated. The proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancers was extracted by use of publicly available data, and its variation was examined against SDI, the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index, and available risk factors in GBD that are specific for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (eg, unimproved water source and indoor air pollution) and for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease).Findings There were 473 000 (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI] 459 000-485 000) new cases of oesophageal cancer and 436 000 (425 000-448 000) deaths due to oesophageal cancer in 2017. Age-standardised incidence was 5•9 (5•7-6•1) per 100 000 population and age-standardised mortality was 5•5 (5•3-5•6) per 100 000. Oesophageal cancer caused 9•78 million (9•53-10•03) DALYs, with an age-standardised rate of 120 (117-123) per 100 000 population. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised incidence decreased by 22•0% (18•6-25•2), mortality decreased by 29•0% (25•8-32•0), and DALYs decreased by 33•4% (30•4-36•1) globally. However, as a result of population growth and ageing, the total number of new cases increased by 52•3% (45•9-58•9), from 310 000 (300 000-322 000) to 473 000 (459 000-485 000); the number of deaths increased by 40•0% (34•1-46•3), from 311 000 (301 000-323 000) to 436 000 (425 000-448 000); and total DALYs increased by 27•4% (22•1-33•1), from 7•68 million (7•42-7•97) to 9•78 million (9•53-10•03). At the national level, China had the highest number of incident cases (235 000 [223 000-246 000]), deaths (213 000 [203 000-223 000]), and DALYs (4•46 million [4•25-4•69]) in 2017. The highest national-level agestandardised incidence rates in 2017 were observed in Malawi (23•0 [19•4-26•5] per 100 000 population) and Mongolia (18•5 [16•4-20•8] per 100 000). In 2017, age-standardis...
We conclude that there were many changes in patients with high-grade glioma during the course of the disease and most of them were related to disease progression.
BackgroundThis study aimed to compare the therapeutic outcomes and fatal carotid blow out syndrome (CBOS) incidence rates between two different stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) protocols.MethodsThe study included 75 patients with inoperable locally recurrent head and neck cancer treated with SBRT in our department between June 2007 and March 2011. The first 43 patients were treated sequentially (group I). Then our SBRT protocol was changed due to the high rate of CBOS, and the following 32 patients were treated every other day in a prospective institutional protocol (group II).ResultsMedian overall survival in group I and group II was 11 months and 23 months, respectively (P = 0.006). We observed 11 cases of CBOS. Only 1 of 7 patients (14%) with CBOS survived in group I, whereas 2 of 4 patients (50%) in group II remain alive. CBOS free median overall survivals were 9 months, and 23 months in group I and group II respectively (P = 0.002). The median radiation dose received by the carotid artery in patients with CBOS was 36.5 Gy (range: 34–42.8 Gy), versus 34.7 Gy (range: 0–44 Gy) in the patients that didn’t have CBOS (P = 0.15). CBOS did not occur in any of the patients with a maximum carotid artery radiation dose <34 Gy.ConclusionsEvery other day SBRT protocol for re-irradiation of recurrent head and neck cancer is promising in terms of decreasing the incidence of fatal CBOS.
In this study, we aimed to assess the cancer risk among patients with periodontal disease. Materials and methods: Patients diagnosed with periodontal diseases at Hacettepe University between 2007 and 2012 were included and data on the diagnosis of any cancer after periodontal disease were collected from patient files. The age-and sex-standardized incidence rates (SIRs) were calculated using Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. Results: A total of 5199 patients were included. Median follow-up was 7.2 years. Patients with periodontal diseases had 17% increased risk of cancer compared with the expected counts for the corresponding age and sex groups (SIR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.04-1.3, P = 0.006). The increased cancer risk was statistically significant in women (SIR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.05-1.45, P = 0.008) but not in men. Among women with periodontal disease, the risks of breast cancer (SIR: 2.19) and head and neck cancer (SIR: 4.71) were significantly increased. Among men, the risks of prostate cancer (SIR: 1.84), head and neck cancer (SIR: 3.55), and hematological cancers (SIR: 1.76) were significantly increased. Conclusion: This study showed that periodontal diseases were associated with increased risk of several cancers. Besides other wellknown benefits for health, the provision of oral/dental health should be considered and employed as a cancer prevention measure.
Background Prevention, control, and treatment of respiratory tract cancers are important steps towards achieving target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)-a one-third reduction in premature mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 2030. We aimed to provide global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer and their attributable risks from 1990 to 2019.Methods Based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 methodology, we evaluated the incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of respiratory tract cancers (ie, tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer). Deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer attributable to each risk factor were estimated on the basis of risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level input from 204 countries and territories, stratified by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Trends were estimated from 1990 to 2019, with an emphasis on the 2010-19 period. Findings Globally, there were 2•26 million (95% uncertainty interval 2•07 to 2•45) new cases of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer, and 2•04 million (1•88 to 2•19) deaths and 45•9 million (42•3 to 49•3) DALYs due to tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer in 2019. There were 209 000 (194 000 to 225 000) new cases of larynx cancer, and 123 000 (115 000 to 133 000) deaths and 3•26 million (3•03 to 3•51) DALYs due to larynx cancer globally in 2019. From 2010 to 2019, the number of new tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer cases increased by 23•3% (12•9 to 33•6) globally and the number of larynx cancer cases increased by 24•7% (16•0 to 34•1) globally. Global age-standardised incidence rates of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer decreased by 7•4% (-16•8 to 1•6) and age-standardised incidence rates of larynx cancer decreased by 3•0% (-10•5 to 5•0) in males over the past decade; however, during the same period, agestandardised incidence rates in females increased by 0•9% (-8•2 to 10•2) for tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and decreased by 0•5% (-8•4 to 8•1) for larynx cancer. Furthermore, although age-standardised incidence and death rates declined in both sexes combined from 2010 to 2019 at the global level for tracheal, bronchus, lung and larynx cancers, some locations had rising rates, particularly those on the lower end of the SDI range. Smoking contributed to an estimated 64•2% (61•9-66•4) of all deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and 63•4% (56•3-69•3) of all deaths from larynx cancer in 2019. For males and for both sexes combined, smoking was the leading specific risk factor for age-standardised deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer per 100 000 in all SDI quintiles and GBD regions in 2019. However, among females, household air pollution from solid fuels was the leading specific risk factor in the low SDI quintile and in three GBD regions (central, eastern, and wester...
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