BackgroundGluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins.ResultsGluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat.ConclusionThe genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.
(2011) Deep barcode divergence in Brazilian freshwater fishes: the case of the São Francisco River basin, Mitochondrial DNA, 22:sup1, 80-86, DOI: 10.3109/19401736.2011.588214 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10. 3109/19401736.2011.588214 View supplementary material Abstract Background and aims. The application of DNA barcoding as a global standard for fish identification is probing diverse worldwide realms (Nearctic, Australian and the Neotropics) and environments (e.g. marine and freshwater). Comparing the patterns of sequence divergence among conspecific and congeneric taxa between realms can provide valuable information on recent evolutionary histories of lineages as barcode data accumulates. Materials and methods. Herein, we have analyzed over 100 species (around 50%) of the Neotropical fish fauna from the São Francisco River, in southeast Brazil. Our aims were to test the performance of DNA barcoding in this biodiversity-rich region, and to compare patterns of genetic divergence with previous studies. Results. The mean Kimura two-parameter distances within species, genera, families, orders, and classes were 0.5, 10.6, 21.0, 22.7, and 24.4%, respectively, with 100% of the species examined successfully differentiated by barcoding. With the exception of Astyanax bimaculatus lacustris, Piabina argentea, and Bryconamericus stramineus, all other species yield a single, cohesive cluster of barcode sequences. The average 'nearest-neighbor distance' was 11.12%, 21-fold higher than the mean within species distance of around 0.54%. In a few instances, deep lineage divergences among conspecifics (up to 10%) and congenerics (up to 22.9%) taxa were revealed. Conclusions. Reflecting possible cases of cryptic speciation and the deeper phylogeographic history of São Francisco fish fauna, with some higher clades extending back into the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic (90 mya), when much of the diversification of the Neotropical region apparently took place. In addition, barcodes also highlighted misidentifications and helped to document range extensions for known species.
BackgroundThe availability of the bovine genome sequence and SNP panels has improved various genomic analyses, from exploring genetic diversity to aiding genetic selection. However, few of the SNP on the bovine chips are polymorphic in buffalo, therefore a panel of single nucleotide DNA markers exclusive for buffalo was necessary for molecular genetic analyses and to develop genomic selection approaches for water buffalo. The creation of a 90K SNP panel for river buffalo and testing in a genome wide association study for milk production is described here.MethodsThe genomes of 73 buffaloes of 4 different breeds were sequenced and aligned against the bovine genome, which facilitated the identification of 22 million of sequence variants among the buffalo genomes. Based on frequencies of variants within and among buffalo breeds, and their distribution across the genome, inferred from the bovine genome sequence, 90,000 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected to create an Axiom® Buffalo Genotyping Array 90K.ResultsThis 90K “SNP-Chip” was tested in several river buffalo populations and found to have ∼70% high quality and polymorphic SNPs. Of the 90K SNPs about 24K were also found to be polymorphic in swamp buffalo. The SNP chip was used to investigate the structure of buffalo populations, and could distinguish buffalo from different farms. A Genome Wide Association Study identified genomic regions on 5 chromosomes putatively involved in milk production.ConclusionThe 90K buffalo SNP chip described here is suitable for the analysis of the genomes of river buffalo breeds, and could be used for genetic diversity studies and potentially as a starting point for genome-assisted selection programmes. This SNP Chip could also be used to analyse swamp buffalo, but many loci are not informative and creation of a revised SNP set specific for swamp buffalo would be advised.
To our knowledge, this is the first report correlating the rate of fraud with processed fish products. The establishment of an official list of acceptable common names for freshwater fish and seafood is urgently needed in Brazil for further trade regulations to take place.
The effect of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) locus on animal health may be due to a direct action of its alleles on immune functions, whereas its indirect effect on production traits might be explained by the better general health conditions of more productive animals. In the present study, the BoLA-DRB3 gene was investigated in 1058 cows belonging to seven Brazilian Gyr Dairy herds (Bos indicus, Zebu cattle). A total of 37 alleles were identified, 15 of them described for the first time in a Zebu breed. A highly significant association (p < 0.02) was observed between allele *54 and a decrease (-26.1 kg) in milk protein yield and there was a significant association (p < 0.05) between this allele and lower (-26.07 kg) milk fat yield. There was also a significant association (p < 0.05) between allele *6 and decreased (-12.47 kg) milk protein and allele *7 and increased (12.72 kg) milk protein. There were also indications of association (p < 0.10) between somatic cell score (SCS) and alleles *3 (SCS increased by 0.54 units) and *31 (SCS increased by 0.46 units). The highly significant association of allele *54 with lower protein yield suggests the possible use of this allele in marker-assisted selection programs
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly conserved genome repair pathway acting on helix distorting DNA lesions. NER is divided into two subpathways: global genome NER (GG-NER), which is responsible for repair throughout genomes, and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), which acts on lesions that impede transcription. The extent of the Trypanosoma brucei genome that is transcribed is highly unusual, since most genes are organized in multigene transcription units, each transcribed from a single promoter. Given this transcription organization, we have addressed the importance of NER to T. brucei genome maintenance by performing RNAi against all predicted contributing factors. Our results indicate that TC-NER is the main pathway of NER repair, but only CSB, XPBz and XPG contribute. Moreover, we show that UV lesions are inefficiently repaired in T. brucei, perhaps due to preferential use of RNA polymerase translesion synthesis. RNAi of XPC and DDB was found to be lethal, and we show that these factors act in inter-strand cross-link repair. XPD and XPB appear only to act in transcription, not repair. This work indicates that the predominance of multigenic transcription in T. brucei has resulted in pronounced adaptation of NER relative to the host and may be an attractive drug target.
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