Microbial communities in two production waters of a low-temperature and low-salinity petroleum reservoir in Canada were examined using cultural and molecular approaches. The predominant cultivated microorganisms were homoacetogens but sulfate-reducers, acetoclastic methanogens and denitrifiers also gave significant counts. The dominant members of the culturable population were affiliated with the Firmicutes, the "Deltaproteobacteria", the "Epsilonproteobacteria", the Spirochaetes and the Euryarchaeota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were also constructed from the total DNA collected from production waters. The bacterial library was entirely composed by a single phylotype related to Arcobacter. The archaeal phylotypes were generally very closely related to members of the orders Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales. Consistent with earlier observations, our data suggest that methanogenesis is a dominant terminal process in the reservoir. Moreover, the cross-evaluation of culture-dependent and -independent techniques also indicates that, contrary to most studies, both acetoclastic and lithotrophic methanogens may be involved in this process. This first investigation of the microbial diversity in a non water-flooded low-temperature and low-salinity petroleum reservoir expands substantially our knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity and highlights the complexity of microbial communities involved in the oil field food chain.
Six bacterial strains capable of using, as sole carbon and energy source, at least one of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene, were isolated. The interactions between these PAH during their biodegradation were studied in experiments involving PAH pairs, one PAH at least being used as a carbon source. All individual strains were found capable of cometabolic degradation of PAH in a range varying among strains. Inhibition phenomena, sometimes drastic, were often observed but synergistic interactions were also detected. Naphthalene was toxic to all strains not isolated on this compound. Strain associations were found efficient in relieving inhibition phenomena, including the toxic effect of naphthalene. Accumulation of water-soluble metabolites was consistently observed during PAH degradation.
The intergenic region of spliced-leader (SL-IR) genes from 105 Trypanosoma cruzi I (Tc I) infected biological samples, culture isolates and stocks from 11 endemic countries, from Argentina to the USA were characterised, allowing identification of 76 genotypes with 54 polymorphic sites from 123 aligned sequences. On the basis of the microsatellite motif proposed by Herrera et al. (2007) to define four haplotypes in Colombia, we could classify these genotypes into four distinct Tc I SL-IR groups, three corresponding to the former haplotypes Ia (11 genotypes), Ib (11 genotypes) and Id (35 genotypes); and one novel group, Ie (19 genotypes). Genotypes harboring the Tc Ic motif were not detected in our study. Tc Ia was associated with domestic cycles in southern and northern South America and sylvatic cycles in Central and North America. Tc Ib was found in all transmission cycles from Colombia. Tc Id was identified in all transmission cycles from Argentina and Colombia, including Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, sylvatic Brazilian samples and human cases from French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. Tc Ie gathered five samples from domestic Triatoma infestans from northern Argentina, nine samples from wild Mepraia spinolai and Mepraia gajardoi and two chagasic patients from Chile and one from a Bolivian patient with chagasic reactivation. Mixed infections by Tc Ia + Tc Id, Tc Ia + Tc Ie and Tc Id + Tc Ie were detected in vector faeces and isolates from human and vector samples. In addition, Tc Ia and Tc Id were identified in different tissues from a heart transplanted Chagas cardiomyopathy patient with reactivation, denoting histotropism. Trypanosoma cruzi I SL-IR genotypes from parasites infecting Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Didelphis virginiana from USA, T. infestans from Paraguay, Rhodnius nasutus and Rhodnius neglectus from Brazil and M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from Chile are to our knowledge described for the first time.
A mesophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium, strain BN3T, was isolated from a producing well of a biodegraded oil reservoir in Canada. Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that did not form spores. The temperature range for growth was 15–40 °C, with optimum growth at 37–40 °C. The strain grew with up 4 % NaCl, with optimum growth in the absence of NaCl. Tryptone was required for growth. Yeast extract and elemental sulfur stimulated growth. Growth was also enhanced during fermentation of glucose, arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, rhamnose, lactose, ribose, fructose, sucrose, cellobiose, lactate, mannitol and glycerol. Acetate, hydrogen and CO2were produced during glucose fermentation. Elemental sulfur and nitrate were used as electron acceptors and were reduced to sulfide and ammonium, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40·8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain was a member of the phylum ‘Bacteroidetes’, distantly related to the generaBacteroidesandTannerella(similarity values of less than 90 %). The chemotaxonomic data (fatty acids, polar lipids and quinones composition) also indicated that strain BN3Tcould be clearly distinguished from its closest cultivated relatives. This novel organism possesses phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic traits that do not allow its classification as a member of any previously described genus; therefore, it is proposed that this isolate should be described as a member of a novel species of a new genus,Petrimonasgen. nov., of whichPetrimonas sulfuriphilasp. nov. is the type species. The type strain is BN3T(=DSM 16547T=JCM 12565T).
Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80-100% for 2-and 3-ring PAHs, 40-70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5-and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater.
Detailed analytical characterization of the organic matter (OM) of aged polluted soils from five former manufactured gas plants (MGP) and of two coal tars was completed. It was aimed at obtaining information relevant to the physicochemical state of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants and to their in-situ evolution in time. Overall characterization of total OM (essentially polluting OM) was carried out directly on soil samples with or without prior extraction with solvent. It involved a technique of pyrolysis/oxidation coupled to flame ionization/thermal conductivity detection (Rock Eval). Extracts in solvent were fractionated by liquid chromatography into saturated hydrocarbons, PAH, and resins, the first two fractions being further characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The compositions of OM of soils were found to be very similar. A total of 28% of organic carbon, including all PAH, was extractable by solvent. The compositions of coal tars were qualitatively similar to those of OM of MGP soils but with a higher proportion (48%) of total extractable OM and of PAH, in particular lower PAH. Contamination of MGP soils appeared essentially as coal tar having undergone natural attenuation. The constant association of PAH with heavy OM in MGP soils is important with respect to the mobility and bioaccessibility of these pollutants.
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