This study describes the development of the central nervous system in guinea pigs from 12th day post conception (dpc) until birth. Totally, 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed macroscopically and by means of light and electron microscopy. The neural tube closure was observed at day 14 and the development of the spinal cord and differentiation of the primitive central nervous system vesicles was on 20th dpc. Histologically, undifferentiated brain tissue was observed as a mass of mesenchymal tissue between 18th and 20th dpc, and at 25th dpc the tissue within the medullary canal had higher density. On day 30 the brain tissue was differentiated on day 30 and the spinal cord filling throughout the spinal canal, period from which it was possible to observe cerebral and cerebellar stratums. At day 45 intumescences were visualized and cerebral hemispheres were divided, with a clear division between white and gray matter in brain and cerebellum. Median sulcus of the dorsal spinal cord and the cauda equina were only evident on day 50. There were no significant structural differences in fetuses of 50 and 60 dpc, and animals at term were all lissencephalic. In conclusion, morphological studies of the nervous system in guinea pig can provide important information for clinical studies in humans, due to its high degree of neurological maturity in relation to its short gestation period, what can provide a good tool for neurological studies.
A one-dimensional MacCormack explicit finite difference model is developed for simulating hydraulics and bed changes in irrigation channels. The Saint-Venant equations describing unsteady flow in open channels and the continuity equation for the conservation of sediment mass are numerically solved. These equations are highly nonlinear and therefore do not have analytical solutions. For this purpose the MacCormack scheme is used. The scheme is second order accurate; it is a coupled solution as it is a two-step predictor corrector method. Model gives results in terms of bed level changes, flow depth and discharge provided physical boundaries of the system are valid for simulation time.Model execution and accuracy is very sensitive to time step and stability. The simulated results show a good agreement with previous studies in the downstream section, and can predict an average value of measured profile in the upstream section. The application of this model to Chashma Right Bank Canal in Pakistan and results of the model are compared with the published results gave very convincing result.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers