This article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs in schools. Studies were included if they evaluated the effects of an anti-bullying program by comparing an intervention group who received the program with a control group who did not. Four types of research design were included: a) randomized experiments, b) intervention-control comparisons with before-and-after measures of bullying, c) other interventioncontrol comparisons, and d) age-cohort designs. Both published and unpublished reports were included. All volumes of 35 journals from 1983 up to the end of May 2009 were hand-searched, as were 18 electronic databases. Reports in languages other than English were also included. A total of 622 reports concerned with bullying prevention were found, and 89 of these reports (describing 53 different program evaluations) were included in our review. Of the 53 different program evaluations, 44 provided data that permitted the calculation of an effect size for bullying or victimization. The meta-analysis of these 44 evaluations showed that, overall, school-based anti-bullying programs are effective: on average, bullying decreased by 20-23% and victimization decreased by 17-20%. Program elements and intervention components that were associated with a decrease in bullying and victimization were identified, based on feedback from researchers about the coding of 40 out of 44 programs. More intensive programs were more effective, as were programs including parent meetings, firm disciplinary methods, and improved playground supervision. Work with peers was associated with an increase in victimization. It is concluded that the time is ripe to mount a new program of research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs based on these findings.
In developing the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), 40 items measuring affective and cognitive empathy were administered to 363 adolescents in Year 10 (aged about 15). Factor analysis reduced this to a 20‐item scale that was administered 1 year later to 357 different adolescents in Year 10 in the same schools. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the two‐factor solution. Females scored higher than males on both affective and cognitive empathy. Empathy was positively correlated with intelligence (for females only), extraversion (cognitive empathy only) neuroticism (affective empathy only), agreeableness, conscientiousness (for males only), and openness. Empathy was positively related to parental supervision and socioeconomic status. Adolescents who would help victims of bullying had high empathy.
An early onset of delinquency prior to age 13 years increases the risk of later serious, violent,
and chronic offending by a factor of 2–3. Also child delinquents, compared to juveniles
who start offending at a later age, tend to have longer delinquent careers. This article summarizes
the report of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Study Group on
Very Young Offenders, chaired by Rolf Loeber and David P. Farrington. The Study Group,
consisting of 16 scholars and 23 coauthors, worked for 2 years on preparing a report, undertaking
extensive secondary data analyses, and writing chapters in different speciality areas. The report
consists of a state of the art review of the developmental background of child delinquents. The
report also summarizes risk and protective factors in the individual, family, peer group, school,
and neighborhood that affect that development. Lastly, the report renews relevant preventive and
remedial interventions in the juvenile justice system, families, peer groups, schools, and
neighborhoods, and makes a case for improvement in the integration of services for child
delinquents. Policy recommendations are presented to improve methods of dealing with child
delinquents by juvenile justice, child welfare, and mental health agencies.
This paper investigates the relationship between cognitive and affective empathy and bullying. A bullying questionnaire was completed by 376 males and 344 females aged about 15 in Hertfordshire. Low affective empathy was significantly related to bullying for females, but not for males. However, for both males and females low affective empathy was related to frequent vs. occasional bullying. Low total empathy was related to violent bullying by males and to indirect bullying by females. Cognitive empathy was not significantly related to any type of bullying by males or females. Aggr. Behav. 32:540-550. 2006.
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