We investigate theoretically the violations of Einstein and Onsager relations and the thermodynamic efficiency for a single processive motor operating far from equilibrium using an extension of the two-state model introduced by Kafri et al. [Biophys. J. 86, 3373 (2004)10.1529/biophysj.103.036152]. With the aid of the Fluctuation Theorem, we analyze the general features of these violations and this efficiency and link them to mechanochemical couplings of motors. In particular, an analysis of the experimental data of kinesin using our framework leads to interesting predictions that may serve as a guide for future experiments.
Uncovering mechanisms that control the dynamics of microtubules is fundamental for our understanding of multiple cellular processes such as chromosome separation and cell motility. Building on previous theoretical work on the dynamic instability of microtubules, we propose here a stochastic model that includes all relevant biochemical processes that affect the dynamics of microtubule plus-end, namely, the binding of GTP-bound monomers, unbinding of GTP- and GDP-bound monomers, and hydrolysis of GTP monomers. The inclusion of dissociation processes, present in our approach but absent from many previous studies, is essential to guarantee the thermodynamic consistency of the model. Our theoretical method allows us to compute all dynamic properties of microtubules explicitly. Using experimentally determined rates, it is found that the cap size is ∼3.6 layers, an estimate that is compatible with several experimental observations. In the end, our model provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic instability of microtubules that includes not only the statistics of catastrophes but also the statistics of rescues.
We study a discrete stochastic model of a molecular motor. This discrete model can be viewed as a minimal ratchet model. We extend our previous work on this model, by further investigating the constraints imposed by the fluctuation theorem on the operation of a molecular motor far from equilibrium. In this work, we show the connections between different formulations of the fluctuation theorem. One formulation concerns the generating function of the currents while another one concerns the corresponding large deviation function, which we have calculated exactly for this model. A third formulation concerns the ratio of the probability of observing a velocity v to the same probability of observing a velocity -v . Finally, we show that all the formulations of the fluctuation theorem can be understood from the notion of entropy production.
We study the stochastic dynamics of growth and shrinkage of single actin filaments or microtubules taking into account insertion, removal, and ATP/GTP hydrolysis of subunits. The resulting phase diagram contains three different phases: two phases of unbounded growth: a rapidly growing phase and an intermediate phase, and one bounded growth phase. We analyze all these phases, with an emphasis on the bounded growth phase. We also discuss how hydrolysis affects force-velocity curves. The bounded growth phase shows features of dynamic instability, which we characterize in terms of the time needed for the ATP/GTP cap to disappear as well as the time needed for the filament to reach a length of zero (i.e., to collapse) for the first time. We obtain exact expressions for all these quantities, which we test using Monte Carlo simulations.
We develop a model to describe the force generated by the polymerization of an array of parallel biofilaments. The filaments are assumed to be coupled only through mechanical contact with a movable barrier. We calculate the filament density distribution and the force-velocity relation with a mean-field approach combined with simulations. We identify two regimes: a non-condensed regime at low force in which filaments are spread out spatially, and a condensed regime at high force in which filaments accumulate near the barrier. We confirm a result previously known from other related studies, namely that the stall force is equal to N times the stall force of a single filament. In the model studied here, the approach to stalling is very slow, and the velocity is practically zero at forces significantly lower than the stall force.
Abstract. We discuss the electrostatic contribution to the elastic moduli of a cell or artificial membrane placed in an electrolyte and driven by a DC electric field. The field drives ion currents across the membrane, through specific channels, pumps or natural pores. In steady state, charges accumulate in the Debye layers close to the membrane, modifying the membrane elastic moduli. We first study a model of a membrane of zero thickness, later generalizing this treatment to allow for a finite thickness and finite dielectric constant. Our results clarify and extend the results presented in [D. Lacoste, M. Cosentino Lagomarsino, and J. F. Joanny, Europhys. Lett., 77, 18006 (2007)], by providing a physical explanation for a destabilizing term proportional to k 3 ⊥ in the fluctuation spectrum, which we relate to a nonlinear (E 2 ) electro-kinetic effect called induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Recent studies of ICEO have focused on electrodes and polarizable particles, where an applied bulk field is perturbed by capacitive charging of the double layer and drives flow along the field axis toward surface protrusions; in contrast, we predict "reverse" ICEO flows around driven membranes, due to curvature-induced tangential fields within a non-equilibrium double layer, which hydrodynamically enhance protrusions. We also consider the effect of incorporating the dynamics of a spatially dependent concentration field for the ion channels.
Autocatalysis is essential for the origin of life and chemical evolution. However, the lack of a unified framework so far prevents a systematic study of autocatalysis. Here, we derive, from basic principles, general stoichiometric conditions for catalysis and autocatalysis in chemical reaction networks. This allows for a classification of minimal autocatalytic motifs called cores. While all known autocatalytic systems indeed contain minimal motifs, the classification also reveals hitherto unidentified motifs. We further examine conditions for kinetic viability of such networks, which depends on the autocatalytic motifs they contain and is notably increased by internal catalytic cycles. Finally, we show how this framework extends the range of conceivable autocatalytic systems, by applying our stoichiometric and kinetic analysis to autocatalysis emerging from coupled compartments. The unified approach to autocatalysis presented in this work lays a foundation toward the building of a systems-level theory of chemical evolution.
We study the stochastic dynamics of growth and shrinkage of single actin filaments taking into account insertion, removal, and ATP hydrolysis of subunits either according to the vectorial mechanism or to the random mechanism. In a previous work, we developed a model for a single actin or microtubule filament where hydrolysis occurred according to the vectorial mechanism: the filament could grow only from one end, and was in contact with a reservoir of monomers. Here we extend this approach in several ways, by including the dynamics of both ends and by comparing two possible mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis. Our emphasis is mainly on two possible limiting models for the mechanism of hydrolysis within a single filament, namely the vectorial or the random model. We propose a set of experiments to test the nature of the precise mechanism of hydrolysis within actin filaments.
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