A retroviral vector containing the wild-type p53 gene under control of a beta-actin promoter was produced to mediate transfer of wild-type p53 into human non-small cell lung cancers by direct injection. Nine patients whose conventional treatments failed were entered into the study. No clinically significant vector-related toxic effects were noted up to five months after treatment. In situ hybridization and DNA polymerase chain reaction showed vector-p53 sequences in posttreatment biopsies. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) was more frequent in posttreatment biopsies than in pretreatment biopsies. Tumor regression was noted in three patients, and tumor growth stabilized in three other patients.
The LMA-Fastrach was used successfully in a high percentage of patients who presented with a variety of DA. The clinical experience presented herein indicates that this device may be particularly useful in the emergency and elective treatment of patients in whom intubation with a rigid laryngoscope has failed and in the treatment of patients with immobilized cervical spines.
Negative mapping of eloquent areas provides a safe margin for surgical resection with a low incidence of neurological deficits. However, identification of eloquent areas not only failed to eliminate but rather increased the risk of postoperative deficits, likely indicating close proximity of functional cortex to tumor.
Few statistically significant differences in cognitive function were observed between patients in the insular and control groups at either the pre- or postoperative evaluation, although there was a trend for patients with insular tumors to exhibit greater postoperative decline in learning and memory. Although technically more challenging, surgery for insular region glioma appears feasible without profound neurological or cognitive morbidity for many patients.
SummaryThe practice of anaesthesia was revolutionised by the ideas of Archie Brain. The routine use of a facemask to manage the airway was not a hands-free technique, despite the development of various harnesses, and made adequate record-keeping difficult. The tracheal tube was associated with some morbidity, which some felt was unsuitable for day surgery. Brain developed an airway management device that was less stressful to the patient than tracheal intubation, and was, however, as safe as using a facemask and airway. Brain also hoped his device would function for cases where mask ventilation was particularly difficult and thus give anaesthetists a safer alternative to a complex intubation, especially in emergency scenarios.
Object. The object of this study was to describe the experience of combining awake craniotomy techniques with high-field (1.5 T) intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for tumors adjacent to eloquent cortex.Methods. From a prospective database the authors obtained and evaluated the records of all patients who had undergone awake craniotomy procedures with cortical and subcortical mapping in the iMRI suite. The integration of these two modalities was assessed with respect to safety, operative times, workflow, extent of resection (EOR), and neurological outcome.Results. Between February 2010 and December 2011, 42 awake craniotomy procedures using iMRI were performed in 41 patients for the removal of intraaxial tumors. There were 31 left-sided and 11 right-sided tumors. In half of the cases (21 [50%] of 42), the patient was kept awake for both motor and speech mapping. The mean duration of surgery overall was 7.3 hours (range 4.0-13.9 hours). The median EOR overall was 90%, and gross-total resection (EOR ≥ 95%) was achieved in 17 cases (40.5%). After viewing the first MR images after initial resection, further resection was performed in 17 cases (40.5%); the mean EOR in these cases increased from 56% to 67% after further resection. No deficits were observed preoperatively in 33 cases (78.5%), and worsening neurological deficits were noted immediately after surgery in 11 cases (26.2%). At 1 month after surgery, however, worsened neurological function was observed in only 1 case (2.3%).Conclusions. There was a learning curve with regard to patient positioning and setup times, although it did not adversely affect patient outcomes. Awake craniotomy can be safely performed in a high-field (1.5 T) iMRI suite to maximize tumor resection in eloquent brain areas with an acceptable morbidity profile at 1 month. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2014.6.JNS132285)
Key words • awake craniotomy • cortical mapping • glioma surgery • iMRI • EOR • oncologyAbbreviations used in this paper: DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; DWI = diffusion-weighted imaging; EOR = extent of resection; fMRI = functional MRI; GTR = gross-total resection; iMRI = intraoperative MRI; LMA = laryngeal mask airway; OR = operating room; PR = partial resection; STR = subtotal resection.
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