Abstract.A neurologic disease characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, hyperesthesia, and muscle tremors of the head and neck was observed for 2 years in a flock of 28 Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats on a farm with 5 ha of pasture. Six newborns died during the first week of life, and five abortions were recorded. The predominant plant in the pasture was Sida carpinifolia. The disease was reproduced experimentally in two goats by administration of this plant. Three goats with spontaneous disease and the two experimental animals were euthanatized and necropsied. No significant gross lesions were observed. Fragments of several organs, including the central nervous system, were processed for histopathology. Small fragments of the cerebellar cortex, liver, and pancreas of two spontaneously poisoned goats and two experimentally poisoned goats were processed for electron microscopy. Multiple cytoplasm vacuoles in hepatocytes, acinar pancreatic cells, and neurons, especially Purkinje cells, were the most striking microscopic lesions in the five animals. Ultrastructural changes included membrane-bound vacuoles in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, acinar pancreatic cells, Purkinje cells, and the small neurons of the granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Paraffin-embedded sections of the cerebellum and pancreas were submitted for lectin histochemical analysis. The vacuoles in different cerebellar and acinar pancreatic cells reacted strongly to the following lectins: Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris, and succinylated Triticum vulgaris. The pattern of staining, analyzed in Purkinje cells and acinar pancreatic cells coincides with results reported for both swainsonine toxicosis and inherited mannosidosis.
The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle.
We report the isolation of a keratinolytic-producing Bacillus subtilis strain and the characterization of the exceptional dehairing properties of its subtilisin-like keratinase. This enzyme can be an alternative to sodium sulfide, the major pollutant from tanneries, and may completely replace it. Its unique nonactivity upon collagen enhances its industrial potential.Enzymatic dehairing in tanneries has been envisaged as an alternative to sulfides (4,6,9,22,23). Tanneries are constantly concerned about the obnoxious odor and pollution caused by the extremely toxic sodium sulfide used in the dehairing process step (24). Deaths due to this toxic chemical process have even been reported (2,8). Worldwide, it is estimated that 315 million bovine leathers are produced per year. Considering a waste treatment cost of $0.30 per m 2 of leather produced (A. Klein, personal communication), more than $1 million is spent per day to treat the waste from tanneries around the world. We report here a novel keratinase from Bacillus subtilis that has the potential to replace sodium sulfide in the dehairing process.Microorganism isolation. Bovine hair, skins wastes, and soil samples were suspended and cultivated in a feather-broth medium (composition in grams per liter: delipidated feather meal [the sole carbon and nitrogen source], 10.0; NaCl, 0.5; K 2 HPO 4 , 0.3; and KH 2 PO 4 , 0.4 [pH 7.5]).The best keratinase-producing organism was identified as a B. subtilis strain (named strain S14) after classification based on homology (99%) of its 16S fragment with sequences from the NCBI databank by use of BLASTN 2.2.6 (1) (accession number AY345856).Keratinase production. The microorganism was cultivated in a 14-liter bioreactor in a culture medium composed of whey milk (a dairy byproduct containing 94.0% water, 5% lactose, 0.9% protein, and 0.1% fat), pH 8.5, and bovine hair (40 g/liter). A crude extract (supernatant) was obtained after centrifugation of the culture. Keratinolytic, subtilisin, and collagenase activities were assayed by using azokeratin, as described elsewhere (15). One unit of enzyme activity was defined as the amount of enzyme that increases absorbance by 0.1 per hour in the conditions described above (15).Dehairing assay. A fresh fleshed bovine hide was washed with a commercial detergent solution and cut into 15-by 5-cm pieces. Two hundred grams of skin (usually two pieces) was processed in a drum flask at 4 rpm with crude extract or water (control) in a proportion of 1.0 ml of liquid per g of skin. When necessary, pH was adjusted with lime. At the end of the process, the skin pieces were gently scraped with fingers to remove loose hairs. This procedure was necessary because rubbing in this laboratory-scale process was not as vigorous as in industrial drums. Total skin depilation was observed in the pH range from 7 to 10, with 4.8 U/g of skin. A complete depilation was reached in 9 h at pH 9.0, 24°C, with 4.8 U/g of skin.Samples of bovine skin were kept in contact with the crude extract, and the skin fragments were fi...
Pestivirus infections in ruminants result in significant economic losses worldwide. The aetiological agents are three species from the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, including bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV), and an atypical pestivirus named HoBi-like pestivirus. In this study, eighty-nine pestivirus isolates that were collected in Brazil between 1995 and 2014 and that originated from either cattle, fetal bovine serum (FBS) or as cell culture contaminants were genotyped based on a comparison of gene sequences from their 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR), N-terminal autoprotease (N ) and envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2). Of these isolates, 53.9% of the sequences were genotyped as BVDV-1, 33.7% as BVDV-2 and 12.4% as HoBi-like pestivirus. The prevalence of subgenotypes within the species was as follows: BVDV-1a (35.9%), BVDV-2b (31.4%), BVDV-1b (10.1%), BVDV-1d (6.7%), BVDV-2c (2.2%) and BVDV-1e (1.1%). BVDV-2c and BVDV-1e were detected for the first time in Brazil. This study revealed extensive genetic diversity among Brazilian pestivirus isolates, and the combination of pestiviruses that was detected is unique to Brazil. This information may serve as a foundation for designing and evaluating diagnostic tools and in the development of more effective vaccines; therefore, it may potentially contribute to pestivirus control and eradication.
Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico.
Objectives This study presents the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular characterization of 26 cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCG). Methods Oral mucosal biopsies, blood and swabs were collected from cats presenting with oral lesions. The tissue sections were submitted for histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for feline calicivirus (FCV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The swabs were subjected to PCR analysis for FCV, and blood for FeLV and FIV. Results The main clinical findings were dysphagia (88.2%), halitosis (76.5%), sialorrhea (47.1%), weight loss (41.2%), intense oral discomfort (35.3%), oral hemorrhage (17.6%), and lackluster and fragile coat (11.8%). Gross inspection revealed bilateral lesions across the palatoglossal fold to the lateral tongue base. The lesions were diffuse, proliferative, intensely red and friable, and bled easily upon examination in 80.8% of cases. In 23.1% of cases, the lesions were multifocal to coalescent, at times forming multiple vesicles on a reddened, edematous palatoglossal fold. Microscopic examination showed that 15.4% of lesions had moderate (grade 2) and 84.6% had severe (grade 3) inflammation. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of FeLV antigens in the epithelium and the inflammatory infiltrate of 30.8% of the cats with FCG. FCV antigens were not detected in the FCG lesions. Conclusions and relevance The FCG cases analyzed could not be correlated with FCV. It is possible that FeLV plays a role as a causal agent of lesions in cases where the presence of the virus has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry in epithelial samples.
Abstract.A neurological syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of moldy beer residues is described. The disease occurred on 1 farm in late June 2001, during winter. Six heifers and 1 cow out of 45 cattle were affected during a 3-week period. The affected animals died spontaneously or were euthanized approximately 2-14 days after the onset of clinical signs. The clinical signs were characterized by flaccid paralysis and gait abnormalities. Clinical signs were more pronounced after exercise and included stiff and unsteady gait, knuckling at the fetlocks of the hind limbs, frequent falling, inability to rise, muscular tremors, especially of the head and the hindquarters, and drooling. Main necropsy findings included degenerative and necrotic changes of the larger medial muscle groups of the hindquarters, i.e., adductor, pectineus, quadriceps femoris, rectus femuris, sartorius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and vastus medialis, and of the forequarters, including pectoralis descendens, pectoralis ascendens, and transversus pectoralis. The main histologic findings consisted of degenerative and necrotic neuronal changes (chromatolysis) of varying severity and extent affecting selected nuclei of the brainstem and neurons of the ventral horns of the spinal cord. Similar microscopic lesions were observed in the neurons of the spinal cord of 1 experimental sheep force-fed for 35 days with 1 kg/day of the same batch of foodstuff that was originally fed to the cattle. Coarse white or gray lumps, interpreted as mycelia, were observed in the beer by-product. Aspergillus clavatus was the dominant fungus isolated. Deaths ceased after the consumption of beer residue was discontinued. Recovery from illness was observed in 1 animal. The diagnosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions, dosing trial, and mycology. A similar condition caused by consumption of barley byproducts, sprouted wheat, corn sprouts, and beetroot screenings contaminated with A. clavatus has been reported in cattle and sheep worldwide.
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