In recent years, articles have been published on the non-visual effects of light, specifically the light emitted by the new luminaires with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and by the screens of televisions, computer equipment, and mobile phones. Professionals from the world of optometry have raised the possibility that the blue part of the visible light from sources that emit artificial light could have pernicious effects on the retina. The aim of this work is to analyze the articles published on this subject, and to use existing information to elucidate the spectral composition and irradiance of new LED luminaires for use in the home and in public spaces such as educational centers, as well as considering the consequences of the light emitted by laptops for teenagers. The results of this research show that the amount of blue light emitted by electronic equipment is lower than that emitted by modern luminaires and thousands of times less than solar irradiance. On the other hand, the latest research warns that these small amounts of light received at night can have pernicious non-visual effects on adolescents. The creation of new LED luminaires for interior lighting, including in educational centers, where the intensity of blue light can be increased without any specific legislation for its control, makes regulatory developments imperative due to the possible repercussions on adolescents with unknown and unpredictable consequences.
Ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves with a frequency greater than 20,000 Hz. Ultrasonic waves are emitted by devices that are used in industry or that have a medical or aesthetic purpose. There is growing interest in the effect of ultrasound absorption on the human body, since people’s exposure to these acoustic waves has increased considerably in recent years. There are more and more devices that emit ultrasounds used for different sanitary procedures, aesthetic treatments and industrial processes, creating more possibilities of ultrasound noise, and therefore an increased risk of occupational hazard and occupational danger. Experiments on animals have shown damage to internal organs from receiving different ultrasonic frequencies. The main task of this work was to organize and summarize recent studies on ultrasound to reflect the current state of this technique and establish a systematic basis for future lines of research. This work has allowed us to better understand the unknown field of these high frequencies of sound, and highlights the need to carry out more studies on the ultrasound emissions that can be absorbed by the human body to determine how this energy could affect humans by calculating the maximum dose of exposure and developing manuals for the use of ultrasound-emitting equipment to protect the health of workers and all people. It is necessary to develop regulations by public administrations to improve the protection of workers, health professionals, patients and all people in general for better occupational safety, indoor environmental quality and environmental health.
Over recent years, a technological revolution has taken place in which conventional lighting has been replaced by light emitting diodes (LEDs). Some studies have shown the possibility that blue light from these artificial sources could have deleterious effects on the retina. Considering that people spend a non-negligible time in front of screens from computers and mobile phones, the eyes receive blue light of different intensities depending on the source. Nevertheless, any study about the visual and non-visual effects of blue light must consider precise measurements taken from actual artificial sources. For this reason, we have analyzed the spectral emission of 10 different electronic devices and weighted them according to the hazard caused by blue light to the eyes, comparing the results with solar radiation simulated with a radiative transfer model. The maximum spectral irradiance of the measured electronic devices at 10 cm from the detector was located between 440 nm and 460 nm. The irradiance for blue light hazard ranged from 0.008 to 0.230 Wm−2 depending on the particular characteristics of each electronic device. In contrast, the solar radiances in the same spectral range are larger both under clear and cloudy conditions.
A cataract is defined as opacity of the crystalline lens. It is currently one of the most prevalent ocular pathologies and is generally associated with aging. The most common treatment for cataracts is surgery. Cataract surgery is a quick and painless process, is very effective, and has few risks. The operation consists of removing the opacified lens and replacing it with an intraocular lens. The most common intraocular lens removal procedure that is currently used is phacoemulsification. The energy applied in this process is generated by ultrasonic waves, which are mechanical waves with a frequency higher than 20 kHz. A great deal of research on the different ways to perform the stages of this surgical procedure and the analysis of the possible side effects of the operation has been published, but there is little information on the technical characteristics, the intensities applied, and the use of ultrasound-emitting (U/S) equipment for cataract removal. More studies on the method and depth of absorption of ultrasonic waves in our visual system when performing the phacoemulsification procedure are needed. It would be advisable for health authorities and medical professionals to develop guidelines for the handling and use of ultrasonic wave-emitting equipment, such as those that exist for ultrasound and physiotherapy. This could help us to reduce undesirable effects after the operation.
The existence of a growing myopia pandemic is an unquestionable fact for health authorities around the world. Different possible causes have been put forward over the years, such as a possible genetic origin, the current excess of children’s close-up work compared to previous stages in history, insufficient natural light, or a multifactorial cause. Scientists are looking for different possible solutions to alleviate it, such as a reduction of time or a greater distance for children’s work, the use of drugs, optometric correction methods, surgical procedures, and spending more time outdoors. There is a growing number of articles suggesting insufficient natural light as a possible cause of the increasing levels of childhood myopia around the globe. Technological progress in the world of lighting is making it possible to have more monochromatic LED emission peaks, and because of this, it is possible to create spectral distributions of visible light that increasingly resemble natural light in the visible range. The possibility of creating indoor luminaires that emit throughout the visible spectrum from purple to infrared can now be a reality that could offer a new avenue of research to fight this pandemic.
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