We present here the record of the rediscovery of Crypturellus noctivagus noctivagus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a forest area on the border of São Sepé and Formigueiro municipalities. The species was considered probably extinct in the state, being unrecorded for about three decades.
Interactions between birds and mites have allowed mites to act as ectoparasites or to be associated with the micro-environments of nests. The aim of this study was to identify the mite fauna associated with wild bird nests in the rural and urban zones of different environments, and analyze the importance of birds as potential carriers of these organisms to households or poultry houses. In the rural zone, the following environments were assessed: Countryside (C), Forest (F), Aquatic (A), Orchards (O), and Residential (R), and in the urban zone, a similar division was used (C, O, R), with absence of environments (A) and (F). Apart from the Suborder Oribatida found in the 52 bird nests sampled in both zones, a total of 24,274 mites were collected and identified as 67 species in 34 families. There was a predominance of mites in the rural zone (90%), with higher richness in (C) of both zones and higher abundance in (R) and (A) of the rural zone and (O) of the urban zone. Mite species of medical-veterinary importance with the highest abundance were Ornithonyssus bursa in nests of Certhiaxis cinnamomeus and Columbina picui; Tyrophagus putrescentiae in nests of Columbina picui and Pitangus sulphuratus; and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in nests of Troglodytes musculus and Pitangus sulphuratus. This study showed that the wild bird nests are depositories of mites, including ectoparasites of medical-veterinary importance.
ABSTRACT. Highways are a major factor acting in the decline of several wildlife populations. Impact occurs due to the continuous flow of motor vehicles over tracks and collision with animals using the same area. This study aimed to list road killed wild vertebrates found in highways in the Pampa Biome, state of Rio Grande do Sul, over an entire year. The taxa found (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) were identified to species level and their frequency of occurrence was seasonally registered. Along 2,160 km, we found 318 road killed individuals, totaling 65 species. This number represents an average of 0.147 road killed specimens by kilometer (that is, 1 individual each 7 km). Of these, seven species are under threat of extinction in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. We also found a seasonal pattern among road kills, in which the highest number of road killed animals was registered in the summer and spring months. These results contribute to increase knowledge about which species are most impacted by road kill on highways of the Pampa Biome. Such data can be used as an indicator for the implementation of measures by competent bodies to mitigate impacts of highways in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.Keywords: mortality, wildlife, Rio Grande do Sul.Levantamento de vertebrados atropelados em rodovias do sul do Brasil RESUMO. As rodovias são um fator provocador de declínio populacional de diversas espécies da fauna silvestre. O impacto ocorre devido ao contínuo fluxo de veículos automotores sobre as pistas e a colisão dos mesmos com animais que também utilizam essa área. O presente estudo teve por finalidade listar os vertebrados silvestres encontrados atropelados em rodovias no bioma Pampa, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, ao longo de um ano. Os táxons encontrados (anfíbios, répteis, aves e mamíferos) foram identificados em nível específico e a sua frequência de ocorrência foi registrada de forma sazonal. Em 2.160 km de estrada percorridos, foram encontrados 318 indivíduos atropelados, totalizando 65 espécies. Essa quantia representa uma média de 0,147 espécimes atropelados por quilômetro (ou seja, 01 indivíduo atropelado a cada 07 Km). Destas, sete espécies estão sob ameaça de extinção no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram observados padrões sazonais nos atropelamentos, sendo que os meses de verão e da primavera apresentaram o maior número de animais atropelados. Os resultados do estudo contribuem para o conhecimento de quais espécies da fauna silvestre são mais impactadas por atropelamentos no bioma Pampa. Estes dados poderão ser utilizados como orientação na implantação de medidas por órgãos competentes, afim de mitigar o impacto de rodovias no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Palavras-chave: mortandade, fauna silvestre, Rio Grande do Sul.
Knowledge about phytoseiid species associated with vines is a preliminary step in the development and implementation of integrated management strategies against phytophagous mites such as Panonychus ulmi. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative survey of phytoseiids present in abandoned, organically managed, and conventionally managed vineyards, as well as to compare ecological indices in these production systems. Samplings were conducted between July and September 2017 in vineyards situated in the Subregions of Lima and Cávado, the Vinho Verde region. A total of 50 leaves/vineyard were collected from 12 vineyards, kept in containers at low temperature and taken to Escola Superior Agrária-Instituto Politécnico Viana do Castelo to be screened under a stereoscope microscope. A total of 3.153 phytoseiid mites were sampled, belonging to eight species distributed across the vineyards analyzed. The most common species were Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) pyri (45.7%), Kampimodromus aberrans (39%), and Phytoseius macropilis (8.7%). Higher richness occurred in abandoned vineyards, with seven species, and the most abundant were K. aberrans (46.5%) and T. (T.) pyri (28.9%). Only two predatory species were present (in similar proportions) in organically managed vineyards, T. (T.) pyri and K. aberrans, while T. (T.) pyri predominated in conventionally managed vineyards (93.8%). Kampimodromus aberrans, P. macropilis, and T. (T.) pyri were eudominant in abandoned vineyards while K. aberrans and T. (T.) pyri were eudominant in organic vineyards. Typhlodromus (T.) pyri was eudominant and T. (T.) exhilaratus was dominant in conventionally managed vineyards. Therefore, we might conclude that phytoseiid abundance significantly differs among vineyard management types, with higher ecological indices in abandoned vineyards, and lower indices in conventional managed vineyards in the northern region of Portugal.
Viticulture is an activity of economic importance in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, especially in Serra Gaúcha, which is the major grape-producing region. However, an increase in cultivated areas has been observed in other municipalities in the state. The aim of this study is to characterize mite diversity and community behavior on different varieties, recognizing which predatory species have potential to control phytophagous mites associated with Europan varieties in the Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul state. The study was conducted in vineyards located in the municipalities of Marques de Souza: ‘BRS Vitória’ and cv ‘Itália’ “m”; Imigrante: cv ‘Itália’ “i”; Dois Lajeados: cv ‘Itália’ (c and f), ‘Tannat’ and ‘Chardonnay’; and Putinga: ‘Champanhe’ and ‘Moscato’. Samplings were carried out monthly in the period ranging from March 2017 to March 2018, during which twenty plants were randomly collected from each variety. Three leaves were clipped from each plant; one from the apical third, one from the median third, and one from the basal third, totaling 60 leaves per area. A total of 10,533 specimens were collected, belonging to 12 families, 38 genera, and 53 species, along with those belonging to the suborder Oribatida. The ‘Itália’ “c” variety had the highest abundance (2,012), followed by ‘Moscato’ (1,788) and ‘BRS Vitória’ (1,593). Phytoseiidae had the highest diversity among the mite families observed, with 20 species followed by Tetranychidae (8). The most abundant species were Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (3,420) and Euseius concordis (Chant) (565), present throughout the study period. ‘Chardonnay’ variety had the highest similarity (72.55%) among mite fauna compositions and the highest dissimilarity occurred between ‘BRS Vitória’ and ‘Champanhe’ varieties (95.48%). Environments evaluated in Dois Lajeados and Putinga were the most homogeneous concerning mite fauna diversity and abundance.
A etnoherpetologia pode ser utilizada como uma importante ciência na obtenção de informações sobre répteis e anfíbios. Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho teve por objetivo registrar o conhecimento popular, verificando as concepções e valores atribuídos a estes animais. O levantamento foi realizado no município de Caçapava do Sul, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, através de questionários contendo questões objetivas e subjetivas que foram aplicados em duas escolas, uma localizada em área urbana e outra em área rural. Em adicional, foram aplicados questionários aos membros da comunidade rural. Participando assim, um total de 84 pessoas, no presente estudo. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que vários mitos envolvendo anfíbios e répteis ainda são considerados reais. Entretanto, a importância da herpetofauna para o meio ambiente foi evidenciada pelos participantes. Ainda assim, devido às crenças populares e a falta de um conhecimento mais elaborado, acabam tendo uma concepção equivocada destes animais. A pesquisa possibilitou uma melhor perspectiva sobre as atitudes e concepções dos indivíduos em relação ao tema abordado. Por fim, esses estudos são uma importante ferramenta na área de Educação Ambiental, possibilitando ampliar o conhecimento sobre essas espécies que são muito mencionadas em mitos e crenças, de forma errônea por grande parte da população.
The aim of this work is to report the presence of Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa, 1890) (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) (Apple rust mite—ARM), in apple orchards of Serra Gaúcha, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Surveys were conducted from apple leaves of Gala cultivar in a commercial orchard of Vacaria County (S 28' 34.540 W 050' 52.153) in the Northeast region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, between November 2016 and January of 2017. The morphological traits and the relative measurements matched with those of A. schlechtendali. This is the first report of this mite pest in Brazil, so far regulated as a quarantine pest, and the third country report in South America. Consideration on the potential pest status of ARM is discussed.
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