Robust high throughput computing requires effective monitoring and enforcement of a variety of resources including CPU cores, memory, disk, and network traffic. Without effective monitoring and enforcement, it is easy to overload machines, causing failures and slowdowns, or underutilize machines, which results in wasted opportunities. This paper explores how to describe, measure, and enforce resources used by computational tasks. We focus on tasks running in distributed execution systems, in which a task requests the resources it needs, and the execution system ensures the availability of such resources. This presents two non-trivial problems: how to measure the resources consumed by a task, and how to monitor and report resource exhaustion in a robust and timely manner. For both of these tasks, operating systems have a variety of mechanisms with different degrees of availability, accuracy, overhead, and intrusiveness. We describe various forms of monitoring and the available mechanisms in contemporary operating systems. We then present two specific monitoring tools that choose different tradeoffs in overhead and accuracy, and evaluate them on a selection of benchmarks.
Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model to assist with real estate appraisals is described and optimized using evolutionary algorithms. Two approaches were compared in the paper. The first one consisted in learning the rule base and the second one in combining learning the rule base and tuning the membership functions in one process. Moreover two model variants with three and five triangular and trapezoidal membership functions describing each input variable were tested. Several TSK fuzzy models comprising different number of input variables were evaluated using the MATLAB. The evolutionary algorithms were based on Pittsburgh approach with the real coded chromosomes of constant length comprising whole rule base or both the rule base and all parameters of all membership functions. The experiments were conducted using training and testing sets prepared on the basis of actual 150 sales transactions made in one of Polish cities and located in a residential section. The results obtained were not decisive and further research in this area is needed.
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