Mountain arnica Arnica montana L. is a source of several metabolite classes with diverse biological activities. The chemical composition of essential oil and its major volatile components in arnica may vary depending on the geographical region, environmental factors, and plant organ. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil derived from A. montana achenes and to investigate its effect on induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human anaplastic astrocytoma MOGGCCM and glioblastoma multiforme T98G cell lines. The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from the achenes was examined with the use of Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry GC-MS. Only 16 components of the essential oil obtained from the achenes of 3-year-old plants and 18 components in the essential oil obtained from the achenes of 4-year-old plants constituted ca. 94.14% and 96.38% of the total EO content, respectively. The main components in the EO from the arnica achenes were 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (39.54 and 44.65%), cumene (13.24 and 10.71%), thymol methyl ether (8.66 and 8.63%), 2,6-diisopropylanisole (8.55 and 8.41%), decanal (7.31 and 6.28%), and 1,2,2,3-tetramethylcyclopent-3-enol (4.33 and 2.94%) in the 3- and 4-year-old plants, respectively. The essential oils were found to exert an anticancer effect by induction of cell death in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme cells. The induction of apoptosis at a level of 25.7–32.7% facilitates the use of this secondary metabolite in further studies focused on the development of glioma therapy in the future. Probably, this component plays a key role in the anticancer activity against the MOGGCCM and T98G cell lines. The present study is the first report on the composition and anticancer activities of essential oil from A. montana achenes, and further studies are required to explore its potential for future medicinal purposes.
Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive traits were monitored, and survival time was assessed. The particular ways of arnica plant propagation and introduction determined all the intrinsic species traits and plant survival. The values of the characteristics studied indicated good acclimatization of the arnica ecotype to the climatic conditions of eastern Poland. Practical implications from the data presented here include the possibility of using the presented modes of arnica propagation and introduction in the short- and long-term perspective of arnica cultivation, which can give a possibility of better adjustment of raw material production.
Arnica montana L. is a medicinal plant with diverse biological activities commonly used in pharmacy and cosmetics. The attributes of A. montana are mainly related to the concentration and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs). Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of EOs derived from A. montana rhizomes and roots taking into account the age of the plants and to investigate the effect of the analyzed EOs on induction of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy in human glioblastoma multiforme T98G and anaplastic astrocytoma MOGGCCM cell lines. Rhizomes and roots of mountain arnica were harvested at the end of the third and fourth vegetation periods. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined with the GC–MS technique. Among the 37 components of the essential oil of A. montana, 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (46.47%–60.31%), 2,6-diisopropylanisole (14.48%–23.10%), thymol methyl ether (5.31%–17.79%), p-methoxyheptanophenone (5.07%–9.65%), and α-isocomene (0.68%–2.87%), were detected in the rhizomes and roots of the three-year-old plants and in the rhizomes and roots of the four-year-old plants. The plant part (rhizome, root) and plant age can be determinants of the essential oil composition and, consequently, their biological activity. The induction of apoptosis (but not autophagy nor necrosis) at a level of 28.5%–32.3% is a promising result, for which 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene, 2,6-diisopropylanisole, thymol methyl ether, and p-methoxyheptanophenone are probably mainly responsible. The present study is the first report on the anticancer activities of essential oils from A. montana rhizomes and roots.
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