We present a phylogenetic analysis of spiders using a dataset of 932 spider species, representing 115 families (only the family Synaphridae is unrepresented), 700 known genera, and additional representatives of 26 unidentified or undescribed genera. Eleven genera of the orders Amblypygi, Palpigradi, Schizomida and Uropygi are included as outgroups. The dataset includes six markers from the mitochondrial (12S, 16S, COI) and nuclear (histone H3, 18S, 28S) genomes, and was analysed by multiple methods, including constrained analyses using a highly supported backbone tree from transcriptomic data. We recover most of the higher‐level structure of the spider tree with good support, including Mesothelae, Opisthothelae, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae. Several of our analyses recover Hypochilidae and Filistatidae as sister groups, as suggested by previous transcriptomic analyses. The Synspermiata are robustly supported, and the families Trogloraptoridae and Caponiidae are found as sister to the Dysderoidea. Our results support the Lost Tracheae clade, including Pholcidae, Tetrablemmidae, Diguetidae, Plectreuridae and the family Pacullidae (restored status) separate from Tetrablemmidae. The Scytodoidea include Ochyroceratidae along with Sicariidae, Scytodidae, Drymusidae and Periegopidae; our results are inconclusive about the separation of these last two families. We did not recover monophyletic Austrochiloidea and Leptonetidae, but our data suggest that both groups are more closely related to the Cylindrical Gland Spigot clade rather than to Synspermiata. Palpimanoidea is not recovered by our analyses, but also not strongly contradicted. We find support for Entelegynae and Oecobioidea (Oecobiidae plus Hersiliidae), and ambiguous placement of cribellate orb‐weavers, compatible with their non‐monophyly. Nicodamoidea (Nicodamidae plus Megadictynidae) and Araneoidea composition and relationships are consistent with recent analyses. We did not obtain resolution for the titanoecoids (Titanoecidae and Phyxelididae), but the Retrolateral Tibial Apophysis clade is well supported. Penestomidae, and probably Homalonychidae, are part of Zodarioidea, although the latter family was set apart by recent transcriptomic analyses. Our data support a large group that we call the marronoid clade (including the families Amaurobiidae, Desidae, Dictynidae, Hahniidae, Stiphidiidae, Agelenidae and Toxopidae). The circumscription of most marronoid families is redefined here. Amaurobiidae include the Amaurobiinae and provisionally Macrobuninae. We transfer Malenellinae (Malenella, from Anyphaenidae), Chummidae (Chumma) (new syn.) and Tasmarubriinae (Tasmarubrius, Tasmabrochus and Teeatta, from Amphinectidae) to Macrobuninae. Cybaeidae are redefined to include Calymmaria, Cryphoeca, Ethobuella and Willisius (transferred from Hahniidae), and Blabomma and Yorima (transferred from Dictynidae). Cycloctenidae are redefined to include Orepukia (transferred from Agelenidae) and Pakeha and Paravoca (transferred from Amaurobiidae). Desidae are rede...
Abstract. Phylogenetic relationships within the superfamily Lycosoidea are investigated through the coding and analysis of character data derived from morphology, behaviour and DNA sequences. In total, 61 terminal taxa were studied, representing most of the major groups of the RTA-clade (i.e. spiders that have a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp). Parsimony and model-based approaches were used, and several support values, partitions and implied weighting schemes were explored to assess clade stability. The morphological-behavioural matrix comprised 96 characters, and four gene fragments were used: 28S (~737 base pairs), actin (~371 base pairs), COI (~630 base pairs) and H3 (~354 base pairs). Major conclusions of the phylogenetic analysis include: the concept of Lycosoidea is restricted to seven families: Lycosidae, Pisauridae, Ctenidae, Psechridae, Thomisidae, Oxyopidae (but Ctenidae and Pisauridae are not monophyletic) and also Trechaleidae (not included in the analysis); the monophyly of the 'Oval Calamistrum clade' (OC-clade) appears to be unequivocal, with high support, and encompassing the Lycosoidea plus the relimited Zoropsidae and the proposed new family Udubidae (fam. nov.); Zoropsidae is considered as senior synonym of Tengellidae and Zorocratidae (syn. nov.); Viridasiinae (rank nov.) is raised from subfamily to family rank, excluded from the Ctenidae and placed in Dionycha. Our quantitative phylogenetic analysis confirms the synonymy of Halidae with Pisauridae. The grate-shaped tapetum appears independently at least three times and has a complex evolutionary history, with several reversions.
A cladistic analysis was applied to test the monophyly of the genus Isoctenus. The data matrix comprised 28 taxa scored for 53 morphological and two behavioural characters. The analysis resulted in two equally parsimonious trees of 89 steps. The strict consensus was used to discuss the relationships of Isoctenus and related Cteninae genera. Ctenopsis Schmidt is synonymized with Isoctenus. Isoctenus foliifer Bertkau, I. strandi Mello‐Leitão, I. eupalaestrus Mello‐Leitão, I. janeirus (Walckenaer), I. coxalis (Pickard‐Cambridge), I. corymbus Polotow, Brescovit & Pellegatti‐Franco and I. malabaris Polotow, Brescovit & Ott are maintained in Isoctenus. Four species currently included in Ctenus are transferred to Isoctenus: I. griseolus (Mello‐Leitão) comb. nov., I. taperae (Mello‐Leitão) comb. nov., I. herteli (Mello‐Leitão) comb. nov. and I. minusculus (Keyserling) comb. nov. The following specific names are synonymized: Ctenus sanguineus Walckenaer, C. semiornatus Mello‐Leitão and Ctenopsis stellata Schmidt with Isoctenus janeirus (Walckenaer), Ctenus mourei Mello‐Leitão with Isoctenus herteli (Mello‐Leitão) and Ctenus pauper Mello‐Leitão with Isoctenus strandi Mello‐Leitão. Isoctenus sigma Schenkel, described from French Guiana, is transferred to Ctenus. Four species are newly described: Isoctenus areiasp. nov. from Paraíba, Brazil, I. charada sp. nov. and I. segredo sp. nov. from Paraná, Brazil, and I. ordinario sp. nov. from south and south‐eastern Brazil and north‐eastern Argentina. Isoctenus latevittatus Caporiacco is considered species inquirenda. Parabatingagen. nov. is proposed to include Ctenus brevipes Keyserling. The following synonymies are established: Ctenus taeniatus Keyserling, C. tatarandensis Tullgren, C. anisitsi Strand, C. atrivulvus Strand, C. mentor Strand, C. brevipes brevilabris Strand, Isoctenus masculus Mello‐Leitão and Ctenus birabeni Mello‐Leitão with Parabatinga brevipes (Keyserling) comb. nov. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 155, 583–614.
Among ctenid spiders, ctenines comprise the most diverse subfamily. In this study, a new genus of Cteninae, Spinoctenus, is proposed to include the type species S. yotoco, sp. nov. Ten new species are also described: S. escalerete, S. pericos, S. eberhardi, S. spinosus, S. stephaniae, S. nambi, S. florezi, S. tequendama, S. chocoensis and S. flammigerus. Results of the parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using morphological and behavioural characters indicate the monophyly of this genus, closely related to Phoneutria Perty, 1883 and Ctenus Walckenaer, 1805. This genus can be distinguished from the remaining Ctenidae by three unambiguous synapomorphies: embolus with folded process, tegulum with median process, and RTA curved internally close to the cymbium. A dispersal-vicariance biogeographical analysis of the genus in the Andean and Chocó regions indicates the origin of Spinoctenus in the Western and Central Andean Cordilleras. From this region, three events of dispersal occurred to the other regions (one to the Chocó and two to the Eastern Cordillera), which were subsequently followed by three events of vicariance, suggesting that dispersal and vicariance were equally important in shaping the current distribution patterns of Spinoctenus species. The discovery of this new genus containing a large number of new species in the Andean and Chocó regions highlights the current poor knowledge of the Colombian biodiversity. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A7DA044C-8A59-4FAE-8F3B-00D3D2498820
ABSTRACT.A new species, Isoctenus malabaris, is described from southern Brazil. This spider was abundantly collected with pitfall traps at Araucaria Forests (Mixed Ombrophilous Forest) domain. The activity of this species was studied in three distinct habitats (primary and secondary forests and silvicultures) during 20 months. A bimodal seasonal activity pattern, of males, was observed. Abundance differences of this species between habitats were not significant. KEYWORDS.Neotropical region, spiders, taxonomy, phenology.RESUMO. Descrição e notas ecológicas de Isoctenus malabaris sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae), do Sul do Brasil. Uma nova espécie, Isoctenus malabaris, é descrita para sul do Brasil. Espécimes desta aranha foram abundantemente coletados com armadilhas de queda em área de domínio da Floresta com Araucária (Floresta Ombrófila Mista). A atividade da espécie foi estudada em três hábitats distintos (florestas primárias e secundárias e silviculturas) ao longo 20 meses. Foi observado um padrão bimodal de atividades ao longo do ano, para espécimes machos. A diferença na abundância desta espécie entre os hábitats não foi significativa.
The species of the genus Centroctenus can be distinguished from other Ctenidae genera by the presence of a long tibiae and the absence of a retrolateral projection of the cymbium in the male palp, and by the presence of a rounded spermathecae in the female epigynum. The composition of this spider genus is herein expanded to eleven Neotropical species, with the description of six new species: Centroctenus dourados sp. n., C. claudia sp. n., C. chalkidisi sp. n., and C. varzea sp. n., from Brazil; and Centroctenus coloso sp. n. from Colombia and Centroctenus alinahui sp. n. from Ecuador. A map with the distribution of all known species in the genus is presented.
Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936) is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia) are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.
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