The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the general population is increasingly high, and at least half of those biopsied prove to be benign. Sonographic risk-stratification systems are being proposed as “rule-out” tests that can identify nodules that do not require fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology.
To comparatively assess the performances of five internationally endorsed sonographic classification systems [those of the American Thyroid Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American College of Radiology (ACR), the European Thyroid Association, and the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology] in identifying nodules whose FNAs can be safely deferred and to estimate their negative predictive values (NPVs).
Prospective study of thyroid nodules referred for FNA.
Single academic referral center.
Four hundred seventy-seven patients (358 females, 75.2%); mean (SD) age, 55.9 (13.9) years.
Main Outcome Measures
Number of biopsies classified as unnecessary, false-negative rate (FNR), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and diagnostic ORs for each system.
Application of the systems’ FNA criteria would have reduced the number of biopsies performed by 17.1% to 53.4%. The ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) allowed the largest reduction (268 of 502) with the lowest FNR (NPV, 97.8%; 95% CI, 95.2% to 99.2%). Except for the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology TIRADS, all other systems exhibited significant discriminatory performance but produced significantly smaller reductions in the number of procedures.
Internationally endorsed sonographic risk stratification systems vary widely in their ability to reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid nodule FNAs. The ACR TIRADS outperformed the others, classifying more than half the biopsies as unnecessary with a FNR of 2.2%.
With stringent negativity cut-offs, American Thyroid Association and Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System assessment of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules allows high-confidence exclusion of malignancy.
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of strain ratio elastography (SRE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) alone and in combination with Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) classification parameters to improve differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
Materials and Methods In this prospective study benign (n = 191) and malignant (n = 52) thyroid nodules were examined with high-resolution ultrasound (US) features using the TIRADS lexicon and SRE semiquantitative and SWE quantitative findings using histology or cytology as the gold standard with a 12-month follow-up. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of each feature and combinations of the methods.
Results TIRADS score showed a sensitivity of 59.6 %, a specificity of 83.8 % with an AUROC of 0.717, a PPV of 50.0 % and an NPV of 88.4 %. SRE yielded the highest performance with a sensitivity of 82.7 %, a specificity of 92.7 % with AUROC of 0.877, a PPV 75.4 % and an NPV of 95.2 %. SWE (kPa) had a sensitivity and specificity of 67.3 % and 82.7 %, respectively, with an AUROC of 0.750, a PPV of 51.5 % and an NPV of 90.3 %. Differences were significant for SRE only but not for SWE.
Conclusion Ultrasound elastography may improve thyroid nodule discrimination. In particular, SRE has a better performance than TIRADS classification, while their combination improves sensitivity.
Observed results raise the importance of better refining the diagnostic protocol for LAR in children. Nasal TSLP and IL-5 levels offer new insights concerning localized allergic inflammation, although the role of nasal sIgE has still to be clarified.
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