This experiment was carried out to study the carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle (LM) of bulls (10) and steers (17) finished in a pasture system. Animals (1/2 Zebu vs. 1/2 Aberdeen Angus) were fed in a pasture system (Hermatria altissima) and with a supplement of soybean meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salts, twice a day. Both animal groups were slaughtered at 27 months of age, with an average 508.88 kg of live weight. Final weight, hot carcass weight and texture were similar (p>0.05) between bulls and steers. Carcass dressing, fat thickness, color and marbling were higher (p<0.02) in steers. Conversely, the Longissimus area was greater (p<0.05) in bulls. Moisture levels were higher (p<0.01) in bulls. Ash, crude protein, total lipids and total cholesterol levels were higher (p<0.10) in steers. C14:0, C16:0, C16:1 n-7 and C18:1 n-9 fatty acids percentages were higher (p<0.06) in steers.
This work was carried out to study the carcass characteristics, the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile in Longissimus muscle (LM) of bull breeds Nellore, NEL (11), Caracu, CAR (12) and Holstein-Friesian, HFR (12) finished in a feedlot. The bulls were fed twice a day with corn silage, cotton meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salt. NEL and CAR bulls had similar (p>0.05) final weight and hot carcass weight. However, NEL and CAR bulls had higher (p<0.05) final weight and hot carcass weight than HFR bulls. Carcass hot dressing, carcass conformation, cushion thickness, Longissimus muscle area and texture were similar (p>0.05) among NEL, CAR and HFR bulls. NEL and HFR bulls had higher (p<0.05) carcass length in comparison to the CAR breed. Nellore breed had higher (p<0.05) leg length in comparison to CAR and HFR breeds. Leg length was similar (p>0.05) between CAR and HFR breeds. Thickness fat, color and marbling score were lower (p<0.05) in NEL breed in comparison to CAR and HFR breeds. LM of NEL bulls had higher (p<0.05) meat moisture content in comparison to CAR and HFR bulls. In contrast, lipid content was lower (p<0.10) in HFR bulls. LM ash and crude protein contents were similar (p>0.05) among breeds. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were higher (p<0.10) in HFR animals. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6, n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the different breeds. N-6/n-3 ratio was higher (p<0.05) in CAR animals.
RESUMO -O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da substituição do milho pelo resíduo úmido da extração da fécula de mandioca nas proporções de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% na matéria seca na dieta sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de bovinos de corte. Foram utilizados 40 animais cruzados (½ e ¾Europeu/Zebu), não-castrados, com 21 meses de idade e pesos médios inicial e final, de 363 e 570 kg, respectivamente, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos, com oito repetições por tratamento. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre as características avaliadas, cujos valores médios obtidos foram: rendimento de carcaça quente, 54,79%; conformação, 12,32 (bom +); comprimento de carcaça, 132,5 cm; espessura de coxão, 28,12 cm; área do Longissimus dorsi, 79,25 cm; porcentagens de osso, 15,51%, de músculo, 64,17%, de gordura, 20,85%; relação músculo + gordura/osso, 5,52; porcentagem da porção comestível, 85,07%; espessura da camada de gordura de cobertura, 4,02 mm; marmoreio, 3,9 (leve -). A composição química da carne não diferiu entre as dietas, com médias de 1,01; 19,16 e 2,24%, respectivamente para cinzas, proteína e matéria graxa total. Houve diferença significativa para umidade, com a maior porcentagem para a dieta com 50% de substituição (74,67%) e a menor para a dieta com 25% (72,89%), ficando as demais com valores intermediários. Não houve influência dos tratamentos sobre as demais variáveis. Os valores médios indicam carcaças com características desejáveis para o mercado.Palavras-chave: alimentação animal, bovinos de corte, qualidade da carne, resíduo de mandioca, valor nutritivo
Effects of Replacing Corn with Increasing Levels of Cassava Starch By-products on Carcass Characteristics and Meat for Young BullsABSTRACT -This trial was conducted to study the effects of replacing corn with increasing levels of cassava starch by-products on carcass and meat characteritics for fedlot young bulls. Percentages of substitution were 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100, in dry matter basis. Forty crossbred bulls (½ and ¾ Bos taurus x Bos índicus), averaging 21 months old and 363 kg of initial body weight and 570 kg of final body weight were assigned to a block design with eight replicates by treatment. No effect of treatment on carcass traits was detected. The averages were as follows: carcass yield, 54.79%; conformation, 12.32 (good +); carcass length, 132.5 cm; cushion thickness, 28.12 cm; ribeye area, 79.25 cm 2 ; porcentages of bone, 15.51%, of muscle, 64.12%, and of fat, 20.85%; muscle + fat/bone relation , 5.52; edible portion percentage, 85.07%; fat thickness, 4.02 mm; and marbling, 3.9 (light -). No effect of treatment on chemical composition of meat was detected, with averages of 1.01; 19.16 and 2.24%, respectively, for ash, protein, and fat. There was significant difference for humidity, with higher percentage for 50% replacement diet (74.67%) and lower for 25% replacement diet (72.89%).
IntroduçãoA abertura do mercado nacional vem provocando acentuado incremento na tecnificação de alguns setores da...
This work was carried out to evaluate animal performance and carcass characteristics of 45 young bulls of three genetic groups: Nellore, 1/2 Nellore × 1/2 European and 1/4 Nellore × 3/4 European finished in feedlot. At the beginning of feedlot, the average bull was 20 (±2) months old, and average weight body was 356.0 (±7.9) kg. The 1/2 Nellore × 1/2 European young bulls had greater (P b 0.05) initial weight (381.7 kg), final weight (531.6 kg) and hot carcass weight (279.2 kg) than 1/4 Nellore × 3/4 European animals (334.6; 498.3 and 256.8 kg, respectively) and Nellore bulls (336.4; 446.4 and 234.3 kg, respectively). The crossbred bulls had greater daily weight gain (1.5 kg) as compared to the Nellore group (1.1 kg). However, carcass dressing was similar (52.3%) among groups. The superiority of crossbred animals over Nellore was observed when considering carcass conformation (good vs. regular), carcass length (136.6 vs. 130.1 cm), cushion thickness (26.6 vs. 25.0 cm), fat thickness (3.38 vs. 1.92 mm) and marbling (light vs. trace). The Nellore group had greater leg length (77.9 vs. 72.9 cm), better meat color (red vs. slightly dark red) and greater bone percentage (16.6 vs. 15.6%) than crossbred specimens. The 1/2 Nellore × 1/2 European groups had greater Longissimus muscle area (68.8 cm 2 ) and greater fat percentage (23.9%) than 1/4 Nellore × 3/4 European and Nellore animals. There was no difference in regards to texture (fine) and muscle percentage (62.9%). There was no difference among crossbreds for moisture (73.2%), ash (1.03%) and fat (1.81%) levels. Nellore animals had greater percentage of protein (25.3 vs. 23.8%), total cholesterol (27.5 vs. 23.0 mg/100 g muscle), stearic acid (25.0 vs. 21.6%), transvaccenic acid (1.6 vs. 1.3%) and γ-linolenic acid (0.2 vs. 0.1%) than crossbred specimens. Total saturated fatty acids (49.9%), monounsaturated fatty acids (38.1%), polyunsaturated fatty acids (12.1%), n-6 (10.0%), n-3 (1.7%), PUFA/SFA ratio (0.2) and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.27) in the Longissimus muscle were similar among genetics groups.
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