-The overseeding of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam) on sub-tropical native pastures increases the availability and quality of forage in the cold season. However, soil chemical amendment and nitrogen use can affect the floristic composition, with consequences to the primary and secondary production. In a randomized complete block design with three replications, the effect of nitrogen fertilization (40, 90 and 140 kg/ha of nitrogen) on native pasture overseeded with ryegrass in two consecutive years was assessed regarding production and composition of pasture and performance of beef calves. In both years, the forage accumulation rate and forage production responded linearly to the increase in nitrogen rates as a result The production and composition of forage and livestock production are improved by the use of nitrogen, but the efficiency of responses can be affected by sowing date and nitrogen fertilization.
A pastagem nativa é uma importante fonte de alimentos na produção de bovinos e ovinos no bioma Pampa. A introdução do azevém e a fertilização nitrogenada são alternativas que visam intensificar a exploração pecuária de forma mais sustentável. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio em cobertura em pastagem nativa com introdução de azevém nos indicadores de acidez do solo. O experimento consistiu de uma sucessão secundária da pastagem natural submetida ao pastejo contínuo. A área foi calcareada, e foram utilizadas três doses de nitrogênio em cobertura, correspondendo a 0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de nitrogênio. Foram realizadas avaliação de saturação por bases, saturação por alumínio e pH nas camadas de 0-10 e 10-20 cm. Na camada de 0-10 cm, para cada 100 kg ha-1 ano-1 de nitrogênio aplicado em cobertura, o pH decresceu 0,27 unidades. Na camada de 10-20 cm o pH decresceu de 5,3 até 4,7 e 4,6 com a aplicação de nitrogênio na dose de 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1, respectivamente. A fertilização nitrogenada de longo prazo em campo nativo com introdução de azevém resultou em acidificação do solo até a profundidade de 20 cm.
Native pastures are of great importance for cattle and sheep nutrition in the Pampa biome. However, due to its low productivity, the Italian ryegrass introduction and the nitrogen (N) fertilization are alternatives proposed to intensify livestock production in a sustainable manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term N application on soil health indicators in a native pasture with Italian ryegrass introduction in southern Brazil. The experiment consists of a secondary native pasture under continuous grazing and constant herbage allowance. In 1996 experimental area was broadcast limed and the experiment was initiated, testing three N topdressing rates (0, 100 and 200kg N ha-1 year-1). In 2010 soil of experimental and reference area of non grazed native grassland was sampled in the soil layers of 0-20 and 20-40cm. Total, particulate and mineral associated carbon (C) and N stocks were evaluated. Soil microbiological attributes were evaluated in 0-5 and 5-10cm soil layers. The long-term N fertilization in soils with native pasture and Italian ryegrass introduction did not affect total C and N stocks. However, increases in N particulate fraction were seen with 100kg ha-1 year-1 of N rate of fertilization. Furthermore, the increase in N rates increased N microbial biomass and respiration.
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