Abstract-A new random linear network coding scheme for reliable communications for time division duplexing channels is proposed. The setup assumes a packet erasure channel and that nodes cannot transmit and receive information simultaneously. The sender transmits coded data packets back-to-back before stopping to wait for the receiver to acknowledge (ACK) the number of degrees of freedom, if any, that are required to decode correctly the information. We provide an analysis of this problem to show that there is an optimal number of coded data packets, in terms of mean completion time, to be sent before stopping to listen. This number depends on the latency, probabilities of packet erasure and ACK erasure, and the number of degrees of freedom that the receiver requires to decode the data. This scheme is optimal in terms of the mean time to complete the transmission of a fixed number of data packets. We show that its performance is very close to that of a full duplex system, while transmitting a different number of coded packets can cause large degradation in performance, especially if latency is high. Also, we study the throughput performance of our scheme and compare it to existing half-duplex Go-back-N and Selective Repeat ARQ schemes. Numerical results, obtained for different latencies, show that our scheme has similar performance to the Selective Repeat in most cases and considerable performance gain when latency and packet error probability is high.
Abstract-We study the energy performance of random linear network coding for time division duplexing channels. We assume a packet erasure channel with nodes that cannot transmit and receive information simultaneously. The sender transmits coded data packets back-to-back before stopping to wait for the receiver to acknowledge the number of degrees of freedom, if any, that are required to decode correctly the information. Our analysis shows that, in terms of mean energy consumed, there is an optimal number of coded data packets to send before stopping to listen. This number depends on the energy needed to transmit each coded packet and the acknowledgment (ACK), probabilities of packet and ACK erasure, and the number of degrees of freedom that the receiver requires to decode the data. We show that its energy performance is superior to that of a full-duplex system. We also study the performance of our scheme when the number of coded packets is chosen to minimize the mean time to complete transmission as in . Energy performance under this optimization criterion is found to be close to optimal, thus providing a good trade-off between energy and time required to complete transmissions.
Point-to-multipoint communications are expected to play a pivotal role in next-generation networks. This paper refers to a cellular system transmitting layered multicast services to a multicast group of users. Reliability of communications is ensured via different Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) techniques. We deal with a fundamental problem: the computational complexity of the RLNC decoder. The higher the number of decoding operations is, the more the user's computational overhead grows and, consequently, the faster the battery of mobile devices drains. By referring to several sparse RLNC techniques, and without any assumption on the implementation of the RLNC decoder in use, we provide an efficient way to characterize the performance of users targeted by ultra-reliable layered multicast services. The proposed modeling allows to efficiently derive the average number of coded packet transmissions needed to recover one or more service layers. We design a convex resource allocation framework that allows to minimize the complexity of the RLNC decoder by jointly optimizing the transmission parameters and the sparsity of the code. The designed optimization framework also ensures service guarantees to predetermined fractions of users. The performance of the proposed optimization framework is then investigated in a LTE-A eMBMS network multicasting H.264/SVC video services.
In networks with large latency, feedback about received packets may lag considerably the transmission of the original packets, limiting the feedback's usefulness. Moreover, time duplex constraints may entail that receiving feedback may be costly. In this work, we consider tailoring feedback and coding jointly in such settings to reduce the expected delay for successful in order reception of packets. We find that, in certain applications, judicious choices provide results that are close to those that would be obtained with a full-duplex system. We study two cases of data transmission: one-to-all broadcast and all-to-all broadcast. We also analyze important practical considerations weighing the trade off between performance and complexity in applications that rely on random linear network coding. Finally, we study the problem of transmission of information under the large latency and time duplexing constraints in the presence of random packet arrivals. In particular, we analyze the problem of using a batch by batch approach and an online network coding approach with Poisson arrivals. We present numerical results to illustrate the performance under a variety of scenarios and show the benefits of the proposed schemes as compared to typical ARQ and scheduling schemes. Index Terms-Bulk queueing, half duplex, large latency, network coding, online network coding, time-division duplexing. I. INTRODUCTION T HIS paper constitutes a step toward coding with delay as the main focus of study and optimization. We focus on reliable communications in environments with packet erasure channels, large latency, and with nodes that have a halfduplex or time-division duplexing constraint. In particular, we Manuscript
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