The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI-the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based-and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided.
The criminogenic needs of general offenders have been empirically studied, but the criminogenic treatment needs of intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders, or how they compare with other violent or nonviolent offenders, have not been as thoroughly explored. Therefore, we examined and compared the criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs of 99 IPV offenders, 233 non-IPV violent offenders, and 103 nonviolent offenders, all of whom were men who had undergone institutional forensic assessment. Results indicated that IPV offenders had more treatment needs than the other two offender groups, including the Central Eight criminogenic needs. These findings support a focus on criminogenic treatment needs in batterer intervention programs for men, consistent with the principles of effective intervention for offenders.
In this study, we used data from life histories of 424 non-incarcerated ( n = 266) and incarcerated ( n = 158) women to examine the extent to which women are exposed to multiple forms of victimization, including child abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and traumatic life events. We assessed the effects of polyvictimization (e.g., multiple victimizations) on women's health-related outcomes (e.g., attempted suicide, drug and alcohol problems) as well as whether the prevalence rates and effects of victimization were significantly different between the subsamples of women. Results indicate that incarcerated women experience significantly more victimization than non-incarcerated women, and while polyvictimization was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol problems, drug problems, and attempted suicide among non-incarcerated women, it was only marginally associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol problems among incarcerated women. Finally, low levels of polyvictimization affected alcohol and drug problems among incarcerated and non-incarcerated women differently.
This study examines the direct effects of neighborhood supportive mechanisms (e.g., collective efficacy, social cohesion, social networks) on depressive symptoms among females as well as their moderating effects on the impact of IPV on subsequent depressive symptoms. A multilevel, multivariate Rasch model was used with data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to assess the existence of IPV and later susceptibility of depressive symptoms among 2959 adult females in 80 neighborhoods. Results indicate that neighborhood collective efficacy, social cohesion, social interactions, and the number of friends and family in the neighborhood reduce the likelihood that females experience depressive symptoms. However, living in areas with high proportions of friends and relatives exacerbates the impact of IPV on females' subsequent depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that neighborhood supportive mechanisms impact interpersonal outcomes in both direct and moderating ways, although direct effects were more pronounced for depression than moderating effects. Future research should continue to examine the positive and potentially mitigating influences of neighborhoods in order to better understand for whom and under which circumstances violent relationships and mental health are influenced by contextual factors.
To incorporate evidence-based practices into batterer intervention programs (BIPs), some intimate partner violence (IPV) researchers have begun to explore the integration of the principles of effective intervention (PEI) into BIPs. The PEI risk principle states that programs should assess offenders' risk for recidivism, and then match offenders' risk levels to the intensity of treatment and other interventions. Therefore, this study demonstrates how BIPs can use the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA) to guide treatment intensity decisions for IPV offenders. Using data from men with criminal charges for IPV incidents in the original ODARA construction and validation research (N = 970), we illustrate how low, medium, and high categories can be created and used to inform BIP treatment intensity decisions (as outlined by the risk principle). Results indicate the ODARA can be used to inform a three-tiered categorical system for BIPs, in accordance with the risk principle of the PEI. Study results provide an avenue for BIP service providers to consider when determining treatment intensity for its IPV offenders. Suggestions for future research are also provided.
This study has two primary goals. First, we seek to identify common demographic characteristics and risk factors among adolescent methamphetamine (MA) users, and second, to determine factors that predict MA use among adolescents. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on data gathered from a 2010 Midwestern state survey administered to 33,364 middle and high school students. Results indicate that typical adolescent MA users are male, identify racially as "Other," and are high school upperclassmen. Individual and community risk factors were found to be statistically significant in predicting MA use among adolescents. Specifically, high individual risk level increased the odds of MA use by roughly 9%, and higher community risk-level scores increased the odds by about 3%. Findings suggest that drug prevention efforts should focus attention on adolescent attitudes regarding health consequences and social acceptability of drug use as well as provide afterschool programs/clubs to adolescents.
The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) principles of effective correctional service that are well supported in the general offending literature have less often been applied to the assessment and treatment of intimate partner violence (IPV). Well validated IPV risk assessment tools are now widely available, and IPV treatment programs that match treatment intensity to assessed risk have shown promising pre-to-post treatment effects. The present study builds on the study of RNR principles in IPV by exploring criminogenic needs and their relation to recidivism and to recently proposed treatment intensity categories derived from an IPV risk assessment tool. We reanalyzed data from 1,421 men with a police report of IPV in the original Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA) dataset, to explore the prevalence of antisocial personality traits, procriminal attitudes, substance use, poor relationships, and work/school problems and their relation to IPV recidivism and ODARA-based treatment intensity categories. Needs were present in 17% (procriminal attitudes) to 42% (substance use) of men. All needs except poor relationships were positively related to IPV recidivism; in logistic regression analyses, antisocial personality traits (OR = 1.80) and poor relationships (OR = 0.61) incrementally predicted IPV recidivism over the ODARA (OR = 1.40). Men placed in higher treatment intensity categories based on the risk assessment score had more criminogenic treatment needs. Findings support using the ODARA to select individuals for the most intensive IPV treatment, and suggest that assessing and treating criminogenic needs may improve IPV treatment outcomes.
Several evaluations and meta-analytic reviews have suggested that domestic violence (DV) treatment programs have only a modest impact on reducing DV recidivism. In response, a growing number of scholars and practitioners have called for the integration of evidence-based practices into DV treatment programming. In recent years, one leading approach has been to explore the infusion of the 'principles of effective intervention (PEI),' the prevailing evidence-based practice in correctional programming, into DV treatment. Findings from initial empirical studies from scholars and practitioners working to infuse the PEI into DV treatment programs have shown promise. This article provides an overview of the PEI and research exploring the integration of the PEI into DV treatment; a discussion on how these research findings can inform DV treatment programs interested in adopting a PEI framework; and practitioners' perspectives on implementing programmatic changes and collaborating on evaluation research while also continuing to provide DV treatment.
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