At the end of 2019 a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome expanded globally from Wuhan, China. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the SARS-Cov-2 virus a global pandemic. We performed a narrative review to describe existing literature with regard to Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and future perspective. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles. Although only when the pandemic ends it will be possible to assess the full health, social and economic impact of this global disaster, this review represents a picture of the current state of the art. In particular, we focus on public health impact, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations, diagnosis, case management, emergency response and preparedness. a natural and zoonotic origin: two scenarios that can plausibly explain the origin of SARS-CoV2 are: (i) natural selection in an animal host before zoonotic transfer; and (ii) natural selection in humans following zoonotic transfer [5,6]. Clinical features and risk factors are highly variable, making the clinical severity range from asymptomatic to fatal . Understanding of COVID-19 is on-going. This review aims to summarize early findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of COVID-19.
Erectile dysfunction may be common among men with diabetes, but its prevalence is still debated. We aimed to assess the relative prevalence of erectile dysfunction in diabetes searching major databases from inception to November 2016 for studies reporting erectile dysfunction in men with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a meta-analysis of the prevalence [and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)] of erectile dysfunction in diabetes compared with healthy controls, calculating the relative odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. A random effect model was applied. From 3747 initial hits, 145 studies were included representing 88 577 men (age: 55.8 ± 7.9 years). The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in diabetes overall was 52.5% (95% CI, 48.8 to 56.2) after adjusting for publication bias, and 37.5%, 66.3% and 57.7% in Type 1, Type 2 and both types of diabetes, respectively (P for interaction < 0.0001). The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was highest in studies using the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (82.2%, 17 studies, P for interaction < 0.0001). Studies with a higher percentage of people with hypertension moderated our results (beta = 0.03; 95% CI, 0.008 to 0.040; P = 0.003; R = 0.00). Compared to healthy controls (n = 5385) men with diabetes (n = 863) were at increased odds of having erectile dysfunction (OR 3.62; 95% CI, 2.53 to 5.16; P < 0.0001; I = 67%, k = 8). Erectile dysfunction is common in diabetes, affecting more than half of men with the condition and with a prevalence odds of approximately 3.5 times more than controls. Our findings suggest that screening and appropriate intervention for men with erectile dysfunction is warranted.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic capacity is derived from the unique structural features on its spike protein: fast viral surfing over the epithelium with flat N‐terminal domain, tight binding to ACE2 entry receptor, and furin protease utilization. In addition, the possible involvement of other components such as lipid rafts, CLRs, and neuropilin is, in combination, mediating the accelerated cell entry and other critical steps in its overwhelming contagious capacity and pandemy.
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