The effect of the antioxidant gallic acid (GA) on Pb toxicity in blood, liver and kidney was investigated in the present study. Rats Wistar received Pb nitrate (50 mg/Kg/day, i.p., 5 days) followed by GA (13.5 mg/Kg, p.o., 3 days) or a chelating agent (EDTA, 55 mg/Kg, i.p.). As result, Pb decreased body weight, hematocrit and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. In addition, high Pb levels were observed in blood and tissues, together with increased (1) lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, plasma and tissues, (2) protein oxidation in tissues and (3) plasma aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. These changes were accompanied by decreasing in antioxidant defenses, like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissues and catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver. GA was able to reverse Pb-induced decrease in body weight and ALA-D activity, as well as Pb-induced oxidative damages and most antioxidant alterations, however it did not decrease Pb bioaccumulation herein as EDTA did. Furthermore, EDTA did not show antioxidant protection in Pb-treated animals as GA did. In conclusion, GA decreased Pb-induced oxidative damages not by decreasing Pb bioaccumulation, but by improving antioxidant defenses, thus GA may be promising in the treatment of Pb intoxications.
This study investigated the influence of neonatal handling on behavioral and biochemical consequences of chronic mild stress (CMS) in adulthood. Male rat pups were submitted to daily tactile stimulation (TS) or maternal separation (MS), from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to postnatal day 21 (PND21), for 10 min/day. In adulthood, half the number of animals were exposed to CMS for 3 weeks and submitted to behavioral testing, including sucrose preference (SP), elevated plus maze (EPM), and defensive burying tasks (DBTs), followed by biochemical assessments. CMS reduced SP, increased anxiety in EPM and DBT, and increased adrenal weight. In addition, CMS decreased plasma vitamin C (VIT C) levels and increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, catalase (CAT) activity in hippocampus and cortex, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in cortex. In contrast, both forms of neonatal handling were able to prevent reduction in SP, anxiety behavior in DBT, and CMS-induced adrenal weight increase. Furthermore, they were also able to prevent plasma VIT C reduction, hippocampal PC levels increase, CAT activity increase in hippocampus and cortex, and SOD levels increase in cortex following CMS. Only TS was able to prevent CMS-induced anxiety symptoms in EPM and PC levels in cortex. Taken together, these findings show the protective role of neonatal handling, especially TS, which may enhance ability to cope with stressful situations in adulthood.
Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), both autologous and allogeneic, requires a rapid and durable engraftment, with neutrophil (>500/µL) and platelet (>20,000/µL) reconstitution. Factors influencing engraftment after autologous or allogeneic HSCT were investigated in 65 patients: 25 autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) and 40 allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients. The major factor affecting engraftment was the graft source for HSCT. Neutrophil and platelet recovery were more rapid in autologous PBSCT than in allogeneic BMT [neutrophil occurring in median on day 10.00 (09.00/11.00) and 19.00 (16.00/23.00) and platelet on day 11.00 (10.00/13.00) and 21.00 (18.00/25.00), respectively; p < 0.0001]. The type of disease also affected engraftment, where multiple myeloma (MM) and lymphoma showed faster engraftment when compared with leukemia, syndrome myelodysplastic (SMD) and aplastic anemia (AA) and MM presented the best overall survival (OS) in a period of 12 months. Other factors included the drug used in the conditioning regimen (CR), where CBV, melphalan (M-200) and FluCy showed faster engraftment and M-200 presented the best OS, in a period of 12 months and age, where 50–59 years demonstrated faster engraftment. Sex did not influence neutrophil and platelet recovery.
In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.
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