The dynamic development of urban areas poses increasingly more challenges for the provision of transport services for the population. The concentration of the economic potential and population in the metropolitan areas results in the occurrence of large transport needs, and when these needs are met at the same time, the phenomenon of congestion occurs. The purpose of the article is to research the relationship between various factors contributing to congestion in urban traffic and the level of congestion in Polish cities. The authors have used statistical methods such as correlation and regression analysis. The research has shown that the most statistically significant relationships have occurred in the case of the number of business entities and the number of passenger cars. It can be concluded that the demand side factors are more important in Polish cities than the supply side factors or perhaps the current transport policy is ineffective. When effectively applied, transport policy instruments can play a special role. These instruments can contribute to reducing congestion in various ways, i.e. by implementing various sub-objectives, which include reducing the need to travel, reducing the use of passenger cars, improving the functioning of public transport and use of the infrastructure. The results of this study can be useful for transport policy makers at central, regional and local levels.
Availability of information is one of the most important factors for financial decision-makers. Having complete information about the probability of losing money should always leave decision-makers better off. However, in some situations financial decision-makers prefer to know less than more. In this study we investigated the impact of selected characteristics of financial threats on individuals' decisions to avoid risk information in an incentivised online experiment. We found that threat severity, relative risk, and effectiveness of threat prevention alone do not influence decisions to avoid risk information. However, we did find an interaction effect between the first two treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that coping style, locus of control, and anticipated emotional response are statistically significant predictors of financial risk information avoidance.
The objective of the article is to examine what attributes are assigned to family firms by consumers familiar and not familiar with family business in the context of trust-building and purchase intention. Research Design & Methods:A nationwide quantitative survey on a statistically representative random-cluster sample of 1 091 consumers was conducted in 2018, based on the fundamentals of pre-survey qualitative research. Findings: This study proves a low level of consumers' familiarity with family firms and indicates attributes assigned to family firms by two segments of buyers. The findings show for which segments the concept of endorsed identity could be influential in the purchasing process, and for which might it be a subordinate stimulus when compared to consumers' trust. Implications & Recommendations: Although a family firm's origin can serve as a cue to purchase, there is a challenge in educating the audience regarding the low level of consumers' knowledge of family businesses. A legal construct provided in this study may reinforce trust towards family firms accompanied with purchase. Contribution & Value Added: This study is based on a representative large sample of consumers, additionally divided into two portrayed segments. It proposes a process of how a family business identity may be endorsed. The proposed legal construct is a novelty in the market and has not been investigated in other scientific research.
Purpose This study aims to investigate the motives for and the benefits of authorized economic operator (AEO) certification in the supply chain. Also, whether there are significant differences in the perception of the AEO status as a necessity or privilege among cargo owners and service providers. Design/methodology/approach The research design includes an international survey of 159 AEO-certified companies from four European Union (EU) countries performing various roles in the supply chain. The data are analyzed using quantitative methods, including factor analysis and analysis of variance. Findings Based on factor analysis, the research reveals the motives for and benefits of AEO certification. This reveals significant differences between two distinct groups of supply chain participants, namely, cargo owners and service providers. Service providers are mainly driven by the need to gain or maintain their competitive advantage and treat AEO certification as a standard that is required by customers. Cargo owners are relatively more focused on the improvement of internal processes and treat AEO certification as a privilege that helps them achieve a high level of efficiency. Originality/value The study fills the existing literature gap as it focuses on the differences between two distinct groups (cargo owners and service providers) in terms of their perception of the AEO certification. As empirical research in this area is scarce, especially at the cross-country level, this study also significantly complements knowledge on AEO certification in the EU.
This study aims to identify middle-class consumers’ habits in four countries during the pandemic of 2020, with special attention to analogous consumers’ reactions to extraordinary circumstances during the recession of 2008. Furthermore, this study tried to detect the impact of the pandemic on conscious shopping. Although the consequences of the ongoing pandemic were unforeseeable, the paper opened new avenues for further research on factors responsible for conscious consumption during the unprecedented externality and its significance on the middle-class consumers in culturally diverse markets. To achieve the aforementioned goals, between June and December 2020, computer-assisted web interviews (CAWI) based on pilot stage research were conducted to answer the following questions: How did the pandemic influence the buyers’ shopping habits in terms of conscious consumption? What were the reasons for the changes in shopping habits? What kind of consumer behaviors would middle-class buyers recommend to others? One general conclusion, inter alia, should be stressed remarkably: during the pandemic, irrespective of the cultural differences, the middle-class consumers’ behaviors did not vary significantly with regards to most of the investigated variables.
Abstract:When (Miller, 1987) and locus of control (Rotter, 1966)
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