Abstract. Haematophagous female blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of vertebrate pathogens, namely filarial Dirofilaria, Mansonella, Onchocerca and protozoal Leucocytozoon. Immature stages of Simuliidae inhabit lotic waterways, the sessile larvae filter-feeding and often forming a large proportion of the benthic biomass, usually aggregated in welloxygenated sections of streams, rivers, waterfalls and spillways. Simuliid control practices depend on larvicidal chemicals, biological products (bacteria, nematodes) and environmental modification. The potential use of predators for biological control of Simuliidae has not been exploited. Predators of Simuliidae include examples of at least 12 families of Diptera and other predaceous arthropods (Crustacea and insects: Coleoptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera), invertebrates (notably Turbellaria), as well as browsing fish. Diptera impacting upon simuliid populations comprise mainly Chironomidae, Empididae and Muscidae, although several other families (Asilidae, Dolichopodidae, Phoridae, Drosophilidae, Scathophagidae) play a significant role as predators. Details of predator and prey species and life stages are presented, by zoogeographical region, including the prevalence of cannibalism among Simuliidae.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.