The European Hernia Society (EHS) is proud to present the EHS Guidelines for the Treatment of Inguinal Hernia in Adult Patients. The Guidelines contain recommendations for the treatment of inguinal hernia from diagnosis till aftercare. They have been developed by a Working Group consisting of expert surgeons with representatives of 14 country members of the EHS. They are evidence-based and, when necessary, a consensus was reached among all members. The Guidelines have been reviewed by a Steering Committee. Before finalisation, feedback from different national hernia societies was obtained. The Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was used by the Cochrane Association to validate the Guidelines. The Guidelines can be used to adjust local protocols, for training purposes and quality control. They will be revised in 2012 in order to keep them updated. In between revisions, it is the intention of the Working Group to provide every year, during the EHS annual congress, a short update of new high-level evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and meta-analyses). Developing guidelines leads to questions that remain to be answered by specific research. Therefore, we provide recommendations for further research that can be performed to raise the level of evidence concerning certain aspects of inguinal hernia treatment. In addition, a short summary, specifically for the general practitioner, is given. In order to increase the practical use of the Guidelines by consultants and residents, more details on the most important surgical techniques, local infiltration anaesthesia and a patient information sheet is provided. The most important challenge now will be the implementation of the Guidelines in daily surgical practice. This remains an important task for the EHS. The establishment of an EHS school for teaching inguinal hernia repair surgical techniques, including tips and tricks from experts to overcome the learning curve (especially in endoscopic repair), will be the next step. Working together on this project was a great learning experience, and it was worthwhile and fun. Cultural differences between members were easily overcome by educating each other, respecting different views and always coming back to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The members of the Working Group would like to thank the EHS board for their support and especially Ethicon for sponsoring the many meetings that were needed to finalise such an ambitious project.
Brain age is becoming a widely applied imaging-based biomarker of neural aging and potential proxy for brain integrity and health. We estimated multimodal and modality-specific brain age in the Whitehall II MRI cohort using machine learning and imaging-derived measures of gray matter morphology, diffusion-based white matter microstructure, and resting state functional connectivity. Ten-fold cross validation yielded multimodal and modality-specific brain age estimates for each participant, and additional predictions based on a separate training sample was included for comparison. The results showed equivalent age prediction accuracy between the multimodal model and the gray and white matter models (R 2 of 0.34, 0.31, and 0.31, respectively), while the functional connectivity model showed a lower prediction accuracy (R 2 of 0.01). Cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure, alcohol intake, and stroke risk score, were each associated with more apparent brain aging, with consistent associations across modalities.
Inguinal hernia (IH) surgery has changed substantially in the past decade. Conventional (nonmesh) techniques have largely given way to prostheses. This study's aim was to analyse whether changes in technique used for IH repair influenced the operation rate for recurrence. A retrospective study was performed on all adult males who had undergone IH surgery in the Amsterdam region during the calendar years of 1994, 1996, 1999, and 2001. Data were obtained for 3,649 subjects and included patient demographics, hernia type, and surgical technique. We observed a decrease in the use of conventional techniques and a significant increase (P<0.05) in the use of prosthetic materials. The number of operations performed for recurrent hernia decreased from 19.5% (216/1,108) in 1994, to 16.8% 197/1,170) in 1996, to 14.0% (152/1,088) in 1999, and to 14.1% (40/283) in 2001. When comparing 1999 and 2001 with 1994, there was a significant decrease in operations performed for recurrent hernia (P=0.005). There was also a significant increase in supervision of the surgical resident by a surgeon.
Purpose In 2003, a dedicated Dutch committee developed evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of inguinal hernia (IH) in children and adults. The aim of this study was to describe trends in hernia care before and after the publication of the guidelines on IH surgery in the Netherlands. Results In children \4 years of age, the study showed a significant decrease of contralateral explorations. In adults, the study showed that significantly more patients were treated with a mesh-based repair in 2005 (95.9 vs. 78.8%, P \ 0.01). Moreover, there was an increase of patients with bilateral hernia treated with an endoscopic technique (41.5 vs. 22.3%, P \ 0.01) and more patients were treated in day surgery (53.5 vs. 38.6%, P \ 0.01). Lastly, a decline in operations performed for recurrent IH in adults was observed (10.9 vs. 13.3%, P \ 0.01). Conclusion This study showed that most patients with IH in the Netherlands were treated according to the main recommendations of the Dutch evidence-based guidelines.
In the episode prior to implementation of the Dutch evidence-based Guidelines for treatment of inguinal hernia, 2839 (78%) adult patients were treated with mesh repair and 484 (13.3%) patients were treated for a recurrent hernia.
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