An alternating copolymer, poly(2-(5-(5,6-bis(octyloxy)-4-(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-7-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-9-octyl-9H-carbazole) (HXS-1), was designed, synthesized, and used as the donor material for high efficiency polymer solar cells. The close packing of the polymer chains in the solid state was confirmed by XRD. A J(sc) of 9.6 mA/cm(2), a V(oc) of 0.81 V, an FF of 0.69, and a PCE of 5.4% were achieved with HXS-1 and [6,6]-phenyl C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM) as a bulk heterojunction active layer spin-coated from a solvent mixture of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1,8-diodooctane (97.5:2.5) under air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) irradiation of 100 mW/cm(2).
The thermochromic and mechanochromic fluorescence of diphenyldibenzofulvenes is investigated. Emission is boosted and blue‐shifted upon crystallization. Yellow emissive crystals of the material transform to green fluorescent crystals upon heating before melting. Reversible switching of the emission color and efficiency are achieved by repeated amorphization and crystallization of dye molecules by a pure thermal process or grinding–heating cycles.
Non-fullerene fused-ring electron acceptors boost the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells, but they suffer from high synthetic cost and low yield. Here, we show a series of low-cost noncovalently fused-ring electron acceptors, which consist of a ladder-like core locked by noncovalent sulfur–oxygen interactions and flanked by two dicyanoindanone electron-withdrawing groups. Compared with that of similar but unfused acceptor, the presence of ladder-like structure markedly broadens the absorption to the near-infrared region. In addition, the use of intramolecular noncovalent interactions avoids the tedious synthesis of covalently fused-ring structures and markedly lowers the synthetic cost. The optimized solar cells displayed an outstanding efficiency of 13.24%. More importantly, solar cells based on these acceptors demonstrate very low non-radiative energy losses. This research demonstrates that low-cost noncovalently fused-ring electron acceptors are promising to achieve high-efficiency organic solar cells.
Stepwise locking of phenyl rings of tetraphenylethene increases the emission efficiency of luminogen solutions gradually, thus verifying the restriction of intramolecular rotation (RIR) mechanism of the aggregation induced emission phenomenon. The emission of the luminogen with one "O" bridge could be tuned reversibly in solid state through repeated heating and grinding.
A novel route has been developed for surfactant-free synthesis of highly fluorescent gold quantum dots (GQDs) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The as-prepared GQDs show instinctive fluorescence and good solubility in water. The formation mechanism and functionalization of GQDs were investigated by UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation and emission spectra, mass spectra, and TEM observation. Ligand-dependent optical properties of functionalized GQDs were found to be dramatically different. The approach provides a facile method of functionalization of bare GQDs for further applications, such as fluorescent biolabels, energy transfer units, and light-emitting devices.
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