Research into intimate partner violence has shown that social isolation constitutes a risk factor, and the presence of social networks can be an important source of social support. This research note presents some results of an empirical study carried out in Mexico into women's social relations, especially their family relations, and their role in the promotion of traditional gender norms. Findings indicate that some of the main conditions that are associated with the production of violence against women are either generated or reinforced within the realm of what can be regarded as women's "strong ties."
This paper presents some thoughts on the problems endured by women facing HIV/AIDS. World and nationwide statistics show an upward trend of the epidemic among women, calling for the need to address this problem. A case is made for the way in which gender structure and relations facilitate the vulnerability of women to this disease, increasing their risk of infection related with specific factors like migration, employment unsafe conditions, and domestic violence, among others. Emphasis is made on the main obstacles faced by women to flag their concerns and needs in society, as well as on their lack of empowerment to cope effectively with their problems. Some initiatives advanced by the organized civil society and governmental strategies are presented, including accomplishments, deficiencies, needs, and challenges. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are given, highlighting the need to establish and evaluate preventative programs and policies from a gender and human rights perspective, to promote a greater awareness and improved responses to the problems imposed on women by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Objective. To describe the methodology, the research designs used, the estimation and sample selection, variable definitions, collection instruments, and operative design and analytical procedures for the National Survey Violence Against Women in Mexico. Material and Methods. A complex (two-step) cross-sectional study was designed and the qualitative design was carried out using in-depth interviews and participant observation in health care units. Results. We obtained for the quantitative study a total of 26 240 interviews in women users of health services and 2 636 questionnaires for health workers; the survey is representative of the 32 Mexican states. For the qualitative study 26 in-depth interviews were conducted with female users and 60 interviews with health workers in the States of Quintana Roo, Coahuila and the Federal District.Key words: family violence; health workers; sampling design; Mexico ResumenObjetivo. Describir la metodología utilizada en la Encuesta Nacional sobre Violencia contra las Mujeres 2003 (ENVIM 2003) en México, junto con el diseño de investigación, la estimación y la selección de muestras, la definición de variables, los instrumentos de recolección, el diseño operativo para su instrumentación y los procedimientos de análisis. Material y métodos. En la parte cuantitativa se recurrió a un diseño transversal en dos etapas. En el componente cualitativo se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante en unidades médicas. Resultados. Se obtuvo un total de 26 240 entrevistas, aplicadas a usuarias de los servicios de salud; y 2 636 cuestionarios correspondientes a proveedores, que abarcaron los 32 estados de la República. En el estudio cualitativo se llevó a cabo un total de 26 entrevistas de profundidad a usuarias y 60 entrevistas de profundidad a prestadores de servicios de salud en los estados de Quintana Roo, Coahuila y el Distrito Federal.Palabras clave: violencia de pareja; prestadores de servicios de salud; diseño muestral; México L a violencia de pareja es un problema social que debe ser reconocido por toda la población. Ocuparse de ella es darle la debida importancia a uno de los problemas de salud pública que más se ha mantenido oculto a lo largo de la historia. De aquí la importancia de romper con la idea de que es un problema "privado" y hacer públicas estas situaciones que dañan la salud de millones de personas. La violencia de pareja constituye un delito que afecta y deteriora los aspectos más valiosos del ser humano, y puede llegar a costarle la vida.1,2 Desde la perspectiva de salud pública, la violencia de pareja es un problema que ocasiona daño psi-
The goal in this article is to examine social problems associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence in Mexico and the related challenges for Mexican persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). The study was conducted from the perspective of infected and affected individuals. The authors completed 64 in-depth interviews with heterosexual male and female PLWHAs, as well as with some key individuals from their social network. Following the principles of grounded theory, they carried out inductive analysis to create codes and organize central themes. The authors identified problems related to accessing HAART and found that conditions for implementing recommendations made in the international literature to improve adherence are poor. The findings highlight the importance of social factors, such as health care system irregularities, ineffective physician-patient communication, and availability of family and other sources of social support such as self-help groups for PLWHAs' access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Mexico.
This study of the experiences of recent Mexican immigrants living in California explores the changing perceptions of sexual and societal norms, including gender roles and resulting reproductive decision-making, that appear to accompany the migration process. These norms are compared to those held by migrants' families of origin in Mexico. We analysed 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with a client-based population in order to identify reproductive perceptions and practices that appear to be influenced by recent migration. Using a grounded theory approach, 26 women and 18 men's narratives were analysed to understand the complexity of changing expectations and resulting reproductive health practises. The social marginalisation and isolation of immigrants' experiences, the challenges of new socio-economic factors and access to health services appear to reshape views on reproductive decisions. While traditional gender roles and large families remain a spoken ideal, in practice these reproductive patterns are changing. Our analysis suggests that the migration process does alter relationships, reproductive decisions and contraceptive use among recent Mexican immigrants. The public health goal should be to provide an array of accessible and affordable services, tailored to the needs of this increasingly larger population of recent Mexican migrants in California and throughout the USA.
Unprotected sex between men is the major risk factor for HIV infection in México and many other Latin American countries. There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that the relationship between sexual identity and sexual practice is not binary or causal -- men who have sex with other men do not necessarily perceive themselves as gay -- and there is increasing interest in HIV prevention with men who have sex with both men and women. In México, HIV prevention with men who have sex with women and men and who are not socially affiliated or identified with gay men is lacking. This paper explores the sexual histories and HIV-risk perception of HIV-positive Mexican men who indicated that they have sex with women in a screening interview and then in the context of an in-depth interview also reported having had sex with men. We consider the sexual practices and sexual and social identities of these men, examining their explanations for having sex with other men, the strategies used to affirm their masculinity, the management of their sexual identity in their social networks, HIV-risk perception before diagnosis and sexual practices after diagnosis. Recommendations are made to improve HIV prevention for men who have sex with men as well as women and who do not assume a gay or bisexual identity.
Overall the problems identified were related to information deficiencies, physicians' lack of training and paternalism, and social stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS associated with the epidemic.
OBJECTIVE:This article describes the experience of the aval ciudadano "Citizens' Representative" (CR) in improving the Mexican health care system. METHODS:This is a qualitative study which took place in eight Mexican states in 2008. It evaluates different aspects of a nationwide program to increase the quality of health care services (National Crusade for Quality in Health Services). The Mexican strategy is compared with experiences in other Latin American countries. RESULTS:In this paper, there is the description of achievements and problems encountered by the CR in promoting social participation in the health of the population. CONCLUSIONS:The CR has great infl uence when representing health service users and passing on their demands for improvements to health care quality. Social participation in health services Nigenda-López GH et al DESCRIPTORS:
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