BackgroundTrypanosomiasis is a disease caused by Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax, a hemoprotozoa that can affect bovines. In South America, the sanguineous form is mechanically transmitted from one mammalian host (ruminant) to another by the bite of a blood-sucking insect or by needles contaminated with infected blood. The negative impact of the parasitosis caused by T. vivax infection on the reproductive activity of male and female ruminants is known to reduce fertility. In males, alterations such as degeneration, diffuse or interlobular inflammatory infiltrate found in ovine and bovine testicles, can affect fertility through decreased sperm quality. This study evaluated the impact of natural infection with T. vivax on Zebu bulls from the Central Station of Artificial Insemination (CSAI) with regard to libido and the negative effects caused by this protozoan on semen quality.MethodsBlood samples of 44 animals were collected to evaluate the presence of the trypomastigote form of T. vivax in blood smears obtained from hematocrit and buffy coat, and antibody titer IgG anti T. vivax in indirect Immunoflorescence (IFI). Furthermore, data related to libido, ejaculate volume, spermatic concentration, and seminal vigor were recorded for these animals employing the criteria of the CSAI.ResultsNine animals (20.45 %) showed T. vivax trypomastigotes and parasitemia between 0.02 and 0.07, and antibody titers from 1:80 to 1:320 in IFI. Twenty nine negative animals in parasitological tests were not reactive in IFI, and six animals presented the antibodies IgG anti T. vivax in IFI. Data on reproductive activity showed that animals infected with T. vivax have a decreased libido and an increased spermatic volume, whereas other factors related to the reproductive process such as spermatic concentration, motility and spermatic force, were unchanged in infected bulls.ConclusionsThe T. vivax infection in Zebu bulls from CSAI caused patent parasitemia, induced a febrile state, promoted reduction in the libido and increased the ejaculate volume. These conditions together may account to decrease the performance of these animals.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a GnRH synthetic analog, as an estrous inducer in female dogs when administered during the anestrous phase, and to evaluate the pregnancy rate achieved through natural copulation. For this purpose, ten female dogs of different breeds were used. The subjects received buserelin by intramuscular injections at a dose of 2,1mcg when female dogs weighed up to 10kg (Group 1) and of 4,2mcg when the dogs weighed above 10kg (Group 2). Of the ten subjects, only three presented estrus after a single injection of buserelin: two dogs from Group 1 and one dog from Group 2 on average 7±1.29 days. The remaining seven dogs were given a second dose of buserelin, equal to the first administration. Of these, three belonged to Group 1 and four to Group 2. Four of these dogs exhibited clinical signs of estrus within, on average 9±7.3 days from the second injection. The seven female dogs that did enter estrus were fertilized successfully through natural copulation. The administration of buserelin was effective in inducing estrus in female dogs during the anestrous phase, with a maximum of two administrations.
ResumoForam estudados neste trabalho, a capacidade de absorção de lgG pelo bezerro lactente nas primeiras 24 horas de vida e possíveis diferenças de concentrações de lgG entre o colostro antes do bezerro mamar, que está localizado no seio lactífero parte glandular e o colostro depois da mamada e ligeira esgota, que está localizado nos duetos lactíferos. Para isso, foi analisado o colostro de 15 vacas recém-paridas e o soro sangüíneo dos bezerros filhos dessas vacas, em duas colheitas, uma antes da primeira mamada, logo após o nascimento, e outra 24 horas depois da primeira. O teste de ELISA foi utilizado . para detecção e quantificação da lgG, tanto no colostro, quanto no soro sangüíneo. Os resultados mostraram que houve grande absorção de lgG pelo bezerro recém-nascido (p<0,05), em 24 horas, mas não houve diferença de concentração (p>0,05) entre o colostro proveniente do seio laclífero (parte glandular) e dos duetos lactíferos.Palavras-chave: imunoglobulina, colostro, glândula mamária, bezerro, bovino de leite. AbstractThe present study examined lhe capacity of lgG absorption by calves during lhe first 24 hours and possible different lgG concentrations in colostrum from two different parts of lhe mammary gland, lhe sinus lactifer pars glandularls and lhe ductus lactiferi. The colostrum from 15 newly-delivered cows and lhe serum from their calves, obtained before lhe first suckling and after 24 hours, were examined. An ELISA test was developed for lhe detection and quantification of lgG in colostrum and lgG in lhe serum. The results showed a high absorption (p<0,05) of lgG by newborn calves in lhe first 24 hours, and there was no difference in lhe concentration (p>0,05) of colostrum in lhe two parts of lhe mammary gland.
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