Number of nephrons, renal hemodynamics, and glomerular morphometry were assessed in rats submitted to a multideficient diet which was developed from a basic regional diet consumed in a Brazilian region of sugarcane cultivation. We evaluated three groups of male Wistar rat offspring: (1) from dams fed a standard diet throughout mating, pregnancy and lactation (control group) and (2) from dams fed the multideficient diet during mating and pregnancy (MalN1 group) or (3) throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation (MalN2 group). At adult age, the animals were anesthetized to measure mean arterial blood pressure and renal hemodynamics. The MalN1 group, as compared with the control group, showed unaltered body and kidney weights, nephron deficiency, a high mean arterial blood pressure, glomerular hypertrophy, and renal vasoconstriction. The MalN2 group showed the same nephron deficiency and mean arterial blood pressure levels as the MalN1 group. These animals exhibited lower body and kidney weights and no glomerular hypertrophy. In conclusion, the alterations induced by intrauterine malnutrition are compatible with the development of chronic renal failure.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hatchery‐tank colours (white, yellow, red, blue, green and black) on the performance of larval culture of Macrobrachium amazonicum. The larvae were fed daily with newly hatched Artemia nauplii. The hatchery‐tank colours affected the light level inside the tanks, the consumption of Artemia nauplii (AN), larval development, survival, mass gain and productivity of postlarvae (PL). The overall consumption of Artemia nauplii per larva during the larval cycle was 30% and 45% higher in the green and red tanks respectively. The significant variation of AN consumption among tank colours (P = 0.0006) indicates that M. amazonicum larvae are visual predators. Survival was higher in the black, blue and green tanks, reaching more than 75%. However, the highest productivity was obtained in the black tanks (80.1 PL L−1). Lighter coloured tanks and excess luminosity (more than 2 μmol s−1 m2 at tank bottom) appear to be important stress factors for larvae, contributing to reduce survival and productivity. The results indicate that rearing M. amazonicum in black tanks will improve larvae condition, ensure greater productivity of postlarvae and lower Artemia consumption, increasing technological and economic viability.
The appropriate feeding regime for larvae and post-larvae of crustacean decapods is essential for successful larval culture. Reports on the development and morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of these crustaceans have aided in the selection of appropriate larval foodstuffs and consequently increased larval survival and growth rate during development. In the present study, the functional morphology of foregut and mouthparts was investigated in larvae and post-larvae of the freshwater prawn M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862). From observations gathered on both the outer and inner feeding apparati the first stage larvae have obligatory lecithotrophy and feeding behaviour is initiated after molting to the second stage. The foregut of the larvae undergoes diverse morphological changes during larval development and the larval foregut of this species is primarily a mixing organ due to the absence of gastric mills and similar structures. After metamorphosis into post-larvae, drastic morphological changes occur in the foregut and mouthparts to adapt the animals to feed on the greater diversity of foods that are available in their new benthic habitat
The present study analyzed the effects of prey density, the time of day, and ontogenetic development on the predation of Artemia nauplii by the larvae of the Amazon river prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum, as well as possible synergy among these factors. Larvae were raised in 120-L tanks with biological filter systems, and fed on recently hatched Artemia nauplii, using two feeding management protocols: (a) fed once per day at 2000 h (high density -HD) and (b) half of the ration provided at 2000 h, complemented at 0800 h the following day by a replacement of the nauplii consumed up to a maximum of the full ration (low density with replacement -LDWR). Each treatment consisted of six replicates. The consumption of nauplii was estimated prior to the feeding times. Consumption varied according to time of day, ontogenetic development, and feeding protocol. The larvae ingested more nauplii during the daytime at most developmental stages. Ingestion rates were similar during the day under both treatments, but at night the higher density of prey in the HD treatment caused a higher encounter rate and increased ingestion of nauplii by the larvae. Among the performance indicators only survival was greater in HD in comparison with LDWR; productivity and dry weight were similar. The results indicate a circadian trophic rhythm in M. amazonicum, with the encounter rate being an important mechanism for the capture of prey during the night. A second mechanism -probably the visual system -aids the perception of prey during the daytime. Based on these results, we suggest that feeding captive Amazon river prawn larvae only once a day would be appropriate and economically beneficial. Further work is necessary to determine the most effective time that this single feed should be applied.
In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I) starvation, (AL) microalgae, (RO) rotifers, (AN) Artemia, (RO + AN) rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO) microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN) microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN) microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered.
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