BackgroundFluid management in the perioperative period has been extensively studied but, despite that, “the right amount” still remains uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of intraoperative fluid approach today.DiscussionIn the current medical literature there are only heterogeneous viewpoints that gives the idea of how confusing the situation is. The approach to the intraoperative fluid management is complex and it should be based on human physiology and the current evidence.SummaryAn intraoperative restrictive fluid approach in major surgery may be beneficial while Goal-directed Therapy should be superior to the liberal fluid strategy. Finally, we propose a rational approach currently used at our institution.
Background: One-lung ventilation (OLV) in thoracic anesthesia is required to provide good surgical exposure. OLV is commonly achieved through a double lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). Malposition is a relevant issue related to these devices use. No prospective studies with adequately large sample size have been performed to evaluate the malposition rate of DLTs and BBs. Methods: A total of 2,127 patients requiring OLV during thoracic surgery were enrolled. The aim of this multicenter prospective observational study performed across 26 academic and community hospitals is to evaluate intraoperative malposition rate of DLTs and BBs. We also aim to assess: which device is the most used to achieve OLV, the frequency of bronchoscope (BRO) use, the incidence rate of desaturation during OLV and the role of other factors that can correlate to this event, and incidence of difficult airway. Results: Malposition rate for DLTs was 14%, for BBs 33%. DLTs were used in 95% of patients and BBs in 5%. Mean positioning time was shorter for DLT than BB (156±230 vs. 321±290 s). BRO was used in 54% of patients to check the correct positioning of the DLT. Desaturation occurred in 20% of all cases during OLV achieved through a DLT. Predicting factors of desaturation were dislocation (OR 2.03) and big size of DLT (OR 1.15). BRO use (OR 0.69) and left surgical side (OR 0.41) proved to be protective factors. Difficult
Novel coronavirus spread rapidly around the world infecting millions of people. It was thus declared a pandemic. This new virus damages the lungs. In the most severe cases, it leads to acute respiratory failure that requires intensive care treatment. However, many clinical reports have listed different neurological symptoms, leading to increased interest in the neurological involvement of COVID-19.
Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain these neurological aspects. Direct viral invasion of the nervous system, systemic cytokine storm and severe hypoxemia are key factors in the development of symptoms.
Critically ill patients present several additional risk factors for nervous system damage. Reasons for these include deep sedation and extended muscular paralysis, bed rest for several days, and the inability to receive proper physical rehabilitation.
After ICU treatment, COVID-19 patients generally require an extensive rehabilitation program. However, distancing restrictions mean that in many cases physiotherapists are unable to enter ICUs, delaying the process of rehabilitation. The role of telemedicine should be considered as an adjunctive tool in the rehabilitation of critically ill COVID-19 patients.
There is no randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the efficacy of antiviral therapy against COVID-19 yet. However, physicians are prescribing different drugs to a large part of COVID-19 population in the hope they will cure them. This does not reflect the evidence-based medicine approach. What we need is more evidence-based knowledge about what routine care practices we should to apply to ameliorate symptoms of patients and fight COVID-19 pathology.
The incidence of cerebral fat embolism (CFE) ranges from 0.9–11%, with a mean mortality rate of around 10%. Although no univocal explanation has been identified for the resulting fat embolism syndrome (FES), two hypotheses are widely thought: the ‘mechanical theory’, and the ‘chemical theory’. The present article provides a systematic review of published case reports of FES following a bone fracture.
We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus to find any article related to FES. Inclusion criteria were: trauma patients; age ≥ 18 years; and the clinical diagnosis of CFE or FES. Studies were excluded if the bone fracture site was not specified.
One hundred and seventy studies were included (268 cases). The male gender was most prominent (81.6% vs. 18.4%). The average age was 33 years (±18). The mean age for males (29 ± 14) was significantly lower than for females (51 ± 26) (p < 0.001). The femur was the most common fracture site (71% of cases). PFO was found in 12% of all cases. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses showed the male gender to be a risk factor for FES: RR 1.87 and 1.41, respectively (95%CI 1.27–2.48, p < 0.001; 95%CI 0.48–2.34, p < 0.001).
FES is most frequent in young men in the third decades of life following multiple leg fractures. FES may be more frequent after a burst fracture. The presence of PFO may be responsible for the acute presentation of cerebral embolisms, whereas FES is mostly delayed by 48–72 h.
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