We determine the complexity of testing whether a finite state, sequential or concurrent probabilistic program satisfies its specification expressed in linear-time temporal logic. For sequential programs, we present an algorithm that runs in time linear in the program and exponential in the specification, and also show that the problem is in PSPACE, matching the known lower bound. For concurrent programs, we show that the problem can be solved in time polynomial in the program and doubly exponential in the specification, and prove that it is complete for double exponential time. We also address these questions for specifications described by co-automata or formulas in extended temporal logic.
This article addresses the problem of designing memory-efficient algorithms for the verification of temporal properties of finite-state programs. Both the programs and their desired temporal properties are modeled as automata on infinite words (Biichi automata). Verification is then reduced to checking the emptiness of the automaton resulting from the product of the program and the property. This problem is usually solved by computing the strongly connected components of the graph representing the product automaton. Here, we present algorithms that solve the emptiness problem without explicitly constructing the strongly connected components of the product graph. By allowing the algorithms to err with some probability, we can implement them with a randomly accessed memory of size O(n) bits, where n is the number of states of the graph, instead of O(n log n) bits that the presently known algorithms require.
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