OBJETIVO: Descrever o processo de adaptação, para o português, da versão resumida da "job stress scale", originalmente elaborada em inglês. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados seis aspectos de equivalência entre a escala original e a versão para o português: as equivalências conceitual, semântica, operacional, de itens, de medidas e funcional. Tomou-se por base um estudo de confiabilidade teste-reteste com 94 indivíduos selecionados. RESULTADOS: O estudo de confiabilidade teste-reteste entre 94 indivíduos permitiu estimativas de reprodutibilidade (coeficientes de correlação intraclasse) para as dimensões de "demanda", "controle" e "apoio social" da escala de 0,88, 0,87 e 0,85, respectivamente. Para as mesmas dimensões, as estimativas de consistência interna (alpha de Cronbach) foram, respectivamente, 0,79, 0,67 e 0,85. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que o processo de adaptação da escala foi bem sucedido, indicando que seu uso no contexto sociocultural da população de estudo (Estudo Pró-Saúde) é apropriado.
This paper evaluates the construct validity of the Medical Outcomes Study's social support scale adapted to Portuguese, when utilized in a cohort study among non-faculty civil servants at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Baseline data were obtained in 1999, when 4,030 participants (92.0% of those eligible) completed a multidimensional self-administered questionnaire at the workplace. From the original scale's five social support dimensions, factor analysis of the data extracted only three dimensions: positive social interaction/affective support; emotional/information support; and material support. We estimated associations between social support dimensions and socio-demographic, health, and well being-related characteristics. We confirmed the hypotheses that less isolated individuals, those with better self-rated health, those who reported more participation in group activities, and those with no evidence of common mental disorders reported better perception of social support. In conclusion, we found good evidence for a high construct validity of this scale, supporting its use in future analyses in the Pró-Saúde Study and in similar population groups.
IntroductionCommunity engagement has been considered a fundamental component of past outbreaks, such as Ebola. However, there is concern over the lack of involvement of communities and ‘bottom-up’ approaches used within COVID-19 responses thus far. Identifying how community engagement approaches have been used in past epidemics may support more robust implementation within the COVID-19 response.MethodologyA rapid evidence review was conducted to identify how community engagement is used for infectious disease prevention and control during epidemics. Three databases were searched in addition to extensive snowballing for grey literature. Previous epidemics were limited to Ebola, Zika, SARS, Middle East respiratory syndromeand H1N1 since 2000. No restrictions were applied to study design or language.ResultsFrom 1112 references identified, 32 articles met our inclusion criteria, which detail 37 initiatives. Six main community engagement actors were identified: local leaders, community and faith-based organisations, community groups, health facility committees, individuals and key stakeholders. These worked on different functions: designing and planning, community entry and trust building, social and behaviour change communication, risk communication, surveillance and tracing, and logistics and administration.ConclusionCOVID-19’s global presence and social transmission pathways require social and community responses. This may be particularly important to reach marginalised populations and to support equity-informed responses. Aligning previous community engagement experience with current COVID-19 community-based strategy recommendations highlights how communities can play important and active roles in prevention and control. Countries worldwide are encouraged to assess existing community engagement structures and use community engagement approaches to support contextually specific, acceptable and appropriate COVID-19 prevention and control measures.
Itch can be suppressed by painful stimuli, but the underlying neural basis is unknown. We generated conditional null mice in which VGLUT2-dependent synaptic glutamate release from mainly Nav1.8-expressing nociceptors was abolished. These mice showed deficits in pain behaviors including mechanical pain, heat pain, capsaicin-evoked pain, inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. The pain deficits were accompanied by greatly enhanced itching, as suggested by i) sensitization of both histamine-dependent and histamine-independent itch pathways, and ii) development of spontaneous scratching and skin lesions. Strikingly, intradermal capsaicin injection promotes itch responses in these mutant mice, as opposed to pain responses in control littermates. Consequently, co-injection of capsaicin was no longer able to mask itch evoked by pruritogenic compounds. Our studies suggest that synaptic glutamate release from a group of peripheral nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch. Elimination of VGLUT2 in these nociceptors creates a mouse model of chronic neurogenic itch.
We describe methodological steps in the selection of questions on social networks and support for a cohort study of 4,030 employees from a public university in Rio de Janeiro. First, group discussions with volunteers were conducted to explore the adequacy of related concepts. Next, questions in the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire were submitted to standard "forward-" and "back-translation" procedures. The questions were subsequently evaluated through five stages of pre-tests and a pilot study. No question had a proportion of non-response greater than 5%. Pearson correlation coefficients between questions were distant from both zero and unity; correlation between all items and their dimension score was higher than 0.80 in most cases. Finally, Cronbach Alpha coefficients were above 0.70 within each dimension. Results suggest that social networks and support will be adequately measured and will allow for the investigation of their associations with health outcomes in a Brazilian population.
. *O termo da língua inglesa binge eating não tem tradução exata em português. Adotou-se a tradução "compulsão periódica", da versão para o português do DSM-IV, acrescentando a palavra "alimentar" para que ficasse explícito tratar-se de comportamento alimentar.
KeywordsIntrodução/Objetivos: Descreve-se o processo de tradução e adaptação, para a língua portuguesa, da Binge Eating Scale (BES) -Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica (ECAP) -, que avalia a gravidade da compulsão alimentar periódica em indivíduos obesos. O objetivo foi traduzir, adaptar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da versão para o português da ECAP. Métodos: Após cuidadoso processo de tradução e adaptação para a língua portuguesa, foi obtida uma versão final da ECAP. Para avaliar sua aplicabilidade, foi realizado um pré-teste em um grupo de 32 pacientes obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP) e que procuravam tratamento para emagrecer. Resultados: Os pacientes compreenderam adequadamente os itens da ECAP. A média de pontuação da ECAP nos pacientes obesos com TCAP foi de 31,2 (±5,8). Conclusão: A versão final para o português da ECAP foi considerada adequada para uso clínico.Compulsão alimentar. Transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. Transtornos alimentares. Obesidade. Escalas.
Introducion/Objective:We describe the translation into Portuguese and the adaptation of the Binge Eating Scale (BES) -a scale to assess binge eating severity in obese individuals. The objective was to translate, adapt and evaluate the applicability of the Portuguese BES version. Methods: A final Portuguese BES version was obtained after a careful translation and adaptation process. To verify the applicability of the instrument, a pre-test was conducted in a group of 32 obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) seeking treatment for obesity. Results: All BES items were well understood and the mean BES scores of the obese binge eaters sample was 31,2 (±5,8).
Conclusion:The Portuguese final version of BES was considered suitable for clinical purposes.Binge eating. Binge eating disorder. Eating disorders. Obesity. Scales. comportamentos compensatórios dirigidos para a perda de peso, compõem uma síndrome denominada atualmente de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP) -binge eating disorder (DSM-IV).
2A CAP ocorre em indivíduos com peso normal e em indivíduos obesos. 3,4 Em obesos que procuram programas para controle de peso, foram observadas freqüências em torno de 30% para TCAP e 46% para CAP, estando o TCAP associado a sintomas psicopatológicos em geral, especialmente à depressão, a uma Entretanto, esses instrumentos não foram construídos para avaliar a CAP especificamente em obesos, nem utilizam uma abordagem dimensional do fenômeno.A utilização de uma medida contínua fornecendo níveis de gravidade da CAP em pacientes obesos acrescenta uma ferramenta importante na avaliação destes, uma vez que estudos evidenciam que a comorbidade psiquiátrica em pacientes obesos parece estar relacionada à gravidade da CAP, ...
The dorsal spinal cord synthesizes a variety of neuropeptides that modulate the transmission of nociceptive sensory information. Here, we used genetic fate mapping to show that Tlx3 ϩ spinal cord neurons and their derivatives represent a heterogeneous population of neurons, marked by partially overlapping expression of a set of neuropeptide genes, including those encoding the anti-opioid peptide cholecystokinin, pronociceptive Substance P (SP), Neurokinin B, and a late wave of somatostatin. Mutations of Tlx3 and Tlx1 result in a loss of expression of these peptide genes. Brn3a, a homeobox transcription factor, the expression of which is partly dependent on Tlx3, is required specifically for the early wave of SP expression. These studies suggest that Tlx1 and Tlx3 operate high in the regulatory hierarchy that coordinates specification of dorsal horn pain-modulatory peptidergic neurons.
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