Fernandes CR, Ruiz Neto PP -O Sistema Respiratório e o Idoso: Implicações Anestésicas
Justificativa e Objetivos -As complicações respiratórias são responsáveis por grande parte dos óbitos após procedimentos c i r ú r g i c o s q u e o c o r r e m n a p o p u l a ç ã o g e r i á t r i c
Conteúdo -São apresentadas as alterações respiratórias fisiológicas do envelhecimento. São enfatizadas as alterações de volume e capacidades pulmonares, da mecânica respiratória e de trocas gasosas proporcionadas pela a n e s t e s i a . S ã o a b o r d a d o s a s p e c t o s r e l a t i v o s à morbimortalidade pulmonar pós-operatória em geriatria
Morbid obesity has a profound effect on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. However, most studies were performed in morbidly obese patients before or after anesthesia. We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia and abdominal opening could modify the elastic and resistive properties of the respiratory system. Eleven morbidly obese and eight normal-weight patients scheduled for gastric binding and cancer treatment, respectively, under laparotomy were studied. Respiratory mechanics, partitioned into its lung and chest wall components, were investigated during surgery by means of the end-inspiratory inflation occlusion method and esophageal balloon at five time points. Static respiratory and lung compliance were markedly reduced in obese patients; on the contrary, static compliance of chest wall presented comparable values in both groups. Obese patients also presented higher resistances of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, as well as "additional" lung resistance. Mainly in obese patients, laparotomy provoked a significant increase in lung compliance and decrease in "additional" lung resistance 1 h after the peritoneum was opened, which returned to original values after the peritoneum had been closed (P < 0.005). In obese patients, low respiratory compliance and higher airway resistance were mainly determined by the lung component.
The esophageal balloon is the most common method to obtain indirect pleural pressure. In sedated or anesthetized patients without major respiratory compliance changes, esophageal pressure variation corresponds to pleural pressure variation when PEEP is applied.
It has been suggested that malignant hyperthermia and exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis are closely related syndromes. Patient died before any specific investigation of malignant hyperthermia, but it is important to look for susceptibility for this syndrome within the family to avoid potentially life-threatening anesthetic events.
Research was conducted in multiple database (MEDLINE from 1965 to 2011, Cochrane Library, and LILACS), and in crossed references with the surveyed material aiming the identification of articles with the best methodological design. Following the findings, critical evaluation of the contents and classification according to the strenght of evidence were performed. The research was conducted between December 2010 and April 2011. For PubMed, were used the following strategies:
This study aims to evaluate the viability of a clinical model of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) and its analgesic effects. It is a prospective study with twenty (20) patients randomly divided into two groups: control group and RIPC group. The opioid analgesics consumption in the postoperative period, the presence of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, the scores of postoperative pain by visual analog scale, and the plasma levels interleukins (IL-6) were evaluated. The tourniquet applying after spinal anesthetic block was safe, producing no pain for all patients in the tourniquet group. The total dose of morphine consumption in 24 hours was significantly lower in RIPC group than in the control group (p = 0.0156). The intensity analysis of rest pain, pain during coughing and pain in deep breathing, showed that visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower in RIPC group compared to the control group: p = 0.0087, 0.0119, and 0.0015, respectively. There were no differences between groups in the analysis of presence or absence of mechanical hyperalgesia (p = 0.0704) and in the serum levels of IL-6 dosage over time (p < 0.0001). This clinical model of remote ischemic preconditioning promoted satisfactory analgesia in patients undergoing conventional cholecystectomy, without changing serum levels of IL-6.
BackgroundPreoperative anxiety and distress can produce significant psychological impacts on children undergoing oncologic care or investigation. Adjuvant therapy is used for pain management in children; however, pre-analgesia options are restricted because they can cause undesirable outcomes.ObjectivesOur study aimed to investigate the use of gabapentin in procedural sedation as adjuvant therapy in children undergoing oncologic treatment.MethodsWe performed a double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial at Albert Sabin Infant’s Hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. Children aged 1 - 6 years who had myelogram or lumbar puncture (associated or not with intrathecal chemotherapy) received placebo or gabapentin syrups (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) one to two hours before the procedure. Preoperative anxiety was evaluated by the Yale preoperative anxiety scale modified (m-YPAS scale). The pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) and children and infants postoperative pain scale (CHIPP) scales were used for emergence delirium and pain intensity measurement, respectively.ResultsWe evaluated 135 patients. We observed that the gabapentin groups presented lower m-YPAS scores than the placebo group at separation and induction times. Postoperatively, the gabapentin groups had lower PAED and CHIPP scores than the placebo group; however, only had PAED scores clinical relevance. No significant differences were found between the gabapentin groups. Furthermore, children with less than three prior similar procedures were more likely to benefit from gabapentin. Postoperative vomiting was prevented by 30 mg/kg gabapentin.ConclusionsAlthough gabapentin has little preoperative effects, it ameliorates anxiety before induction, improves anesthetic induction, and reduces the occurrence of emergence delirium and postoperative vomiting up to eight hours after the procedure. Thus, we indicate gabapentin as adjuvant therapy for procedural sedation.
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