To explore the capability of very high‐frequency ultrasound (US; 50–71 MHz) to detect the normal morphologic characteristics of the hair follicles and tracts, sebaceous glands, Montgomery glands, apocrine glands, and arrector pili muscles.
A retrospective study, approved by the Institutional Review Board, evaluated the normal US morphologic characteristics of the hair and adnexal structures in a database of very high‐frequency US images extracted from the perilesional or contralateral healthy skin of 1117 consecutive patients who underwent US examinations for localized lesions of the skin and 10 healthy individuals from December 2017 to June 2018. These images were matched with their counterparts from the database of normal histologic images according to the corporal region. The Cohen concordance test and regional mean diameters of the hair follicles and adnexal structures were analyzed.
The normal hair follicles and tracts, sebaceous glands, Montgomery glands, apocrine glands, and arrector pili muscles were observed on US images and matched their histological counterparts in all the corporal regions. There was significant US concordance (κ = 0.82; P = .0001) among observers. Regional mean diameters (millimeters) of the hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and apocrine glands are provided.
The hair follicles and tracts, sebaceous glands, Montgomery glands, apocrine glands, and arrector pili muscles are detectable with very high‐frequency US, including some regional and anatomic variants. Knowledge of their normal US appearances is a requisite for detecting subclinical changes, understanding the physiopathologic characteristics, and supporting the early diagnosis and management of common dermatologic diseases.
Key lesions of pilonidal cysts and hidradenitis suppurativa have similar sonographic morphologic characteristics, which suggests that a pilonidal cyst may be a variant or localized form of hidradenitis suppurativa. The retained fragments of hair tracts frequently detected in both entities may be caused by ectopic production of hair and not by embedding. Common therapeutic strategies and research can be designed for both entities.
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.
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