Among 407 New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry (NEMC-PCR) patients, 59% had strokes without transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), 24% had TIAs before strokes, and 16% had only posterior circulation TIAs. Embolism was the commonest stroke mechanism accounting for 40% of cases (24% cardiac origin, 14% arterial origin, 2% had potential cardiac and arterial sources). In 32%, large artery occlusive lesions caused hemodynamic brain infarction. Stroke mechanisms in the posterior and anterior circulation are very similar. Infarcts most often included the distal posterior circulation territory (rostral brainstem, superior cerebellum and occipital and temporal lobes), while the proximal (medulla and posterior inferior cerebellum) and middle (pons and anterior inferior cerebellum) territories were equally involved. Infarcts that included the distal territory were twice as common as those that included the proximal or middle territories. Most distal territory infarcts were attributable to embolism. Thirty day mortality was low (3.6%). Embolic stroke mechanism, distal territory location, and basilar artery occlusive disease conveyed the worst prognosis.
Spontaneous intracranial ICA dissection can cause ischemic stroke with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intracranial ICA stenosis or occlusion, especially in young patients. Some patients survive with few or moderate deficits.
We report the clinical findings and stroke mechanisms of 63 patients with cerebellar infarcts. We divided the intracranial vertebrobasilar circulation into the proximal territory (P), fed by the intracranial vertebral arteries and their branches; the middle territory (M), fed by the proximal and middle basilar artery and its branches; and the distal territory (D), fed by the rostral basilar artery and its branches. Cerebellar infarcts were classified by vascular territories P, M, D, P&D, and middle-plus (P&M, M&D, and P&M&D). Patients with P infarcts (11 patients) frequently had vertigo, gait instability, limb ataxia, and headache, whereas patients with D infarcts (15 patients) most often had limb ataxia, gait instability, and dysarthria. Patients with P&D infarcts (17 patients) had signs and symptoms of both groups combined. Infarcts in which the middle territory was involved, either alone (three patients) or combined with other territories (17 patients) were dominated by brainstem signs and symptoms. The predominant stroke mechanisms in the P, D, and P&D groups were embolic due to intra-arterial or cardiac embolism. When the M territory was involved, either alone or with P, D, or P&D territories, stroke mechanisms were more varied, and there was often large-artery occlusion with hemodynamic ischemia.
UI is associated with several risk factors and has a negative impact on QoL. Appropriate investigation regarding the factors associated with the types of UI should be performed to diminish its impact on QoL.
Knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of pregnant women who experience domestic violence is of paramount importance in planning appropriate strategies for their needs during pregnancy. Results indicate the need for nurses to intervene when warning signs of domestic violence against pregnant women are detected.
We assessed mortality, treatment response, and relapse among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Cohort study of 87 HIV-infected and 336 HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer.
Patients at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer (2001–2013) were matched on age, calendar year of diagnosis, clinical stage, and tumor histology. Staging and treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy followed international guidelines. We used a Markov model to assess responses to initial therapy, and Cox models for mortality and relapse after complete response.
Among 234 deaths, most were from cancer (82% in HIV-infected vs. 93% in HIV-uninfected women); only 9% of HIV-infected women died from AIDS. HIV was not associated with mortality during initial follow-up but was associated more than 1–2 years after diagnosis (overall mortality: stage-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.02, 95%CI 1.27–3.22; cancer-specific mortality: 4.35, 1.86–10.2). Among 222 patients treated with radiotherapy, HIV-infected had similar response rates to initial cancer therapy as HIV-uninfected women (HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.58–1.66). However, among women who were treated and had a complete response, HIV was associated with elevated risk of subsequent relapse (HR 3.60, 95%CI 1.86–6.98, adjusted for clinical stage).
Among women with cervical cancer, HIV infection was not associated with initial treatment response or early mortality, but relapse after attaining a complete response and late mortality were increased in those with HIV. These results point to a role for an intact immune system in control of residual tumor burden among treated cervical cancer patients.
Economic crises are associated with a significant increase in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, financial crises seem to have a corrosive impact on mental health by reducing the mediating effects of positive beliefs regarding the good nature of society.
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