This work grew from initiatives of the International Society of Biometeorology's Commission on Climate, Tourism and Recreation (ISBCCTR). The ISBCCTR was formed during the 15th Congress of the ISB held in November 1999 in Sydney, Australia. The aim of ISBCCTR is to promote research in tourism climatology. The first formal meeting of the Commission took place at the Meliton Resort, Halkidiki, Greece, 5-10 October 2001. The aims were to (1) bring together a selection of scientists and tourism experts to review the current state of knowledge of tourism climatology and (2) explore areas and priorities for future work and the role of the Commission in this. The Workshop highlighted the fact that, although climate is widely recognised as vitally important to tourism, relatively little is known about its effects. Even less is known about the economic impact or significance of climate on commercial prospects for tourism. Important research themes that warrant attention were identified. Among these was the need for a tourism climate index (or indices) that integrates all facets of climate, uses standard data and is objectively tested and verified. Work is also required on developing a better understanding of what climate-related information is required by both tourists and the tourism industry, exploring the distinction between the impact of climate on tourists and the impact on the tourism industry, setting a standard approach to tourism climate assessment, assessing the role of weather forecasts and long-term expectations of climate on choices made by tourists, the risks to tourism caused by extreme atmospheric events, what climate-related criteria people use to make decisions about tourism and recreational choices, how products giving information about weather and climate are currently used by the recreation and tourism industry and what are the existing and future requirements for this climate information.
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies.
Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.
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