Orf virus is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a severe exanthematic disease that affects small ruminants. Orf virus is zoonosis that is associated with occupational contact with infected animals in human disease. Clinically, contagious ecthyma is characterized by the appearance of vesicles, pustules, ulcers, and papillomatous proliferative lesions on the skin of the lips and nostrils. Here we describe a case of lethal cutaneous multifocal Orf virus infection in goats in the Amazon region of Brazil. Exanthematic lesions were collected and epidemiological and clinical data were obtained. Orf virus was detected using PCR amplification of the whole B2L, VIR, and VEGF open reading frame. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus clustered together with the Orf virus samples isolated during classical contagious ecthyma. The present work is the first to report a severe proliferative Orf virus case in South America.
Tuberculosis is a disease with a great zoonotic potential. It is considered a major obstacle to cattle production and is responsible for severe losses in several production systems. A comparative cervical test (CCT) was performed in 1140 buffaloes from different mesoregions of the state of Pará, Brazil, with the aim of comparing the sensitivity and specificity of CCT with histopathological examination and bacterial culture. Of the animals tested using CCT, 4.65% (53/1140) were positive, 2.98% (34/1140) were inconclusive, and 92.36% (1053/1140) were negative. Among the 168 sacrificed animals, 33 were positive, 18 were inconclusive, and 117 were negative by CCT, and samples from the sacrificed animals were collected for histopathological examination and bacterial culture. A qualitative evaluation of the tuberculin test was performed by comparing the test results with the histopathological and bacteriological results. The latter two tests yielded a prevalence of 4.16%, a sensitivity of 71.43%, and a specificity of 82.61%. Based on these results, we concluded that CCT yielded satisfactory results and can be applied in diagnostic studies in buffaloes. The prevalence rate obtained using three distinct diagnostic methods suggests that Mycobacterium bovis was present in a few animals in the population evaluated.
Purpose Despite advances in the composition of defined embryo culture media, co-culture with somatic cells is still used for bovine in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in many laboratories worldwide. Granulosa cells are most often used for this purpose, although recent work suggests that co-culture with stem cells of adult or embryonic origin or their derived biomaterials may improve mouse, cattle, and pig embryo development. Materials and methods In experiment 1, in vitro produced bovine embryos were co-cultured in the presence of two concentrations of bovine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells (b-ATMSCs; 10 3 and 10 4 cells/mL), in b-ATMSC preconditioned medium (SOF-Cond), or SOF alone (control). In experiment 2, co-culture with 10 4 b-ATMSCs/mL was compared to the traditional granulosa cell co-culture system (Gran). Results In experiment 1, co-culture with 10 4 b-ATMSCs/mL improved blastocyst rates in comparison to conditioned and control media (p < 0.05). Despite that it did not show difference with 10 3 b-ATMSCs/mL (p = 0.051), group 10 4 bATMSCs/mL yielded higher results of blastocyst production.In experiment 2, when compared to group Gran, co-culture with 10 4 b-ATMSCs/mL improved not only blastocyst rates but also quality as assessed by increased total cell numbers and mRNA expression levels for POU5F1 and G6PDH (p < 0.05). Conclusions Co-culture of bovine embryos with b-ATMSCs was more beneficial than the traditional co-culture system with granulosa cells. We speculate that the microenvironmental modulatory potential of MSCs, by means of soluble substances and exosome secretions, could be responsible for the positive effects observed. Further experiments must be done to evaluate if this beneficial effect in vitro also translates to an increase in offspring following embryo transfer. Moreover, this study provides an interesting platform to study the basic requirements during preimplantation embryo development, which, in turn, may aid the improvement of embryo culture protocols in bovine and other species.
Com base no histórico e em dados clínico-patológicos, bem como a inspeção das pastagens, foi estabelecido o diagnóstico de intoxicação por Cestrum laevigatum Schlecht. em uma mortandade de búfalos no município de Itaguaí, RJ. A intoxicação foi reproduzida em dois búfalos. Amostras de folhas dessecadas de C. laevigatum foram administradas manualmente por via oral a quatro bubalinos da raça Murrah, em doses únicas correspondentes a 20g/kg e 40g/kg da planta fresca. A dose correspondente a 40g/kg provocou o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos que consistiram principalmente em apatia, anorexia, ausência dos movimentos ruminais, dismetria, excitação e agressividade, e levaram à morte os dois animais em até 65 horas após a administração da planta. Dos outros dois bufalos que receberam a dose correspondente a de 20g/kg da planta fresca, um apresentou sinais clínicos, caracterizados principalmente por diminuição dos movimentos ruminais, e recuperou-se em 97h22min após a administração da planta; o outro não apresentou sinais clínicos. Os exames laboratoriais para avaliação bioquímica indicaram lesão hepática. Em um búfalo que morreu, as principais alterações macroscópicas foram fígado de cor alaranjada, com superfície externa e de corte com nítido aspecto de noz moscada; no outro, o fígado tinha a superfície externa e de corte de cor alaranjada, sem aspecto de noz moscada. Outras alterações encontradas nos dois búfalos foram leve edema da parede da vesícula biliar, endocárdio do ventrículo esquerdo com equimoses extensas e endocárdio do ventrículo direito com algumas petéquias; mucosa do abomaso levemente avermelhada e conteúdo levemente ressecado; intestino grosso com pouco conteúdo, levemente ressecado e envolto por muco. Os exames histopatológicos revelaram no fígado, acentuada necrose de coagulação dos hepatócitos nas zonas centrais e intermediárias dos lóbulos. Na periferia dessas regiões necrosadas observou-se um halo de hepatócitos com vacuolização.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 32(9):843-849, setembro 2012 843 RESUMO.-Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terriϔicus (Crotalus durissus terriϔicus na antiga nomenclatura), com a ϐinalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente oϐídico em equinos. O veneno lioϐilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal), 0,066mg/kg (dois animais) e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais The clinic-pathological picture and laboratory ϐindings in horses experimentally inoculated with the venom of Caudisona durissa terriϔicus (Crotalus durissus terriϔicus, according to the former nomenclature) are described. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of this type of snake accident in horses. The lyophilized venom was diluted into 1ml of a 0.9% saline solution and was inoculated subcutaneously into ϐive horses, at the doses of 0.12mg/kg (one horse), 0.066mg/kg (two horses) and 0.03mg/kg (two horses). The venom caused death of the horse that had received 0.12mg/kg, and of one horse of the two that had received the dose of 0.066mg/kg. The clinical course varied from 27h27min to 52h29min. The second horse inoculated with 0.066mg/kg recovered within 12 days after inoculation. The dose of 0.03mg/kg had a course of 6 to 10 days, but did not cause fatal envenomation. The clinical picture in the horses was characterized by swelling of the inoculation site (shoulder) that spread to the whole leg, by apathy and lowered head, locomotory alterations shown by dragging of the hoves on the ground, decubitus and difϐi-culty to get up, reduction of auricular, palatal, upperlip and threat reϐlexes, and increase of heart and breathing frequency. The laboratory examination revealed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in two horses. There was increase of the creatine-kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (DHL) and urea, and reduction in the seric levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The activated partial tromboplastina time (TTPA) increased in the horses that died. Postmortem ϐindings were edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the whole leg into which the venom was inoculated, suffusions in the epicard of left and right heart ventricles, and bladder with hemorrhagic areas in its mucosa. Histopatologic examination revealed the liver parenchyma with diffuse moderate vacuolation affecting predominantly the intermediate area of the hepatic lobe, and slight dilation of the sinusoides in some areas, and slight dilation of the kidney tubules mainly in the cortex.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 34(1):11-14, janeiro 2014 11 RESUMO.-O objetivo do estudo foi testar a prevalência sorológica e molecular de Anaplasma marginale em búfalos do municipio de Soure, Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. Para a pesquisa sorologica foram selecionados randomicamente 800 animais e para a pesquisa molecular 50 destes animais foram aleatoriamente escolhidos. Para quantificar a prevalência sorológica utilizou-se o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimático indireto (iELISA) com antígeno total contendo proteínas de superfície externa e para quantificar a prevalência molecular utilizou-se a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), envolvendo a amplificação de fragmento gênico da proteína de superfície maior 5 (MSP5). A prevalência de animais positivos no ELISA para A. marginale foi de 25% (200/800). Na PCR foi detectada a presença de A. marginale em 2% (1/50) dos animais. Embora apenas um animal tenha sido positivo na PCR, observou-se que o mesmo foi negativo no ELISA. A presença do agente, mesmo em baixa prevalência, mostra que os bubalinos podem funcionar como um importante reservatório desse patógeno para os rebanhos bovinos da região norte do Brasil.
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