Background While modular femoral heads have been used in THA for decades, a recent innovation is a second neck-stem taper junction. Clinical advantages include intraoperative adjustment of leg length, femoral anteversion, and easier revision, all providing flexibility to the surgeon; however, there have been reports of catastrophic fracture, cold welding, and corrosion and fretting of the modular junction.
Purpose: Remote ischemic conditioning has been shown to protect against kidney injury in animal and human studies of ischemia-reperfusion. Recent evidence suggests that conditioning may also provide protection against kidney injury caused by contrast medium. The purpose of this study was to determine if conditioning protected against increases in serum creatinine (SCr) after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT).
Methods: A randomised controlled trial (NCT 01741896) was performed with institutional review board approval and informed patient consent. Adult in-patients undergoing abdomino-pelvic CECT were allocated to conditioned or control groups. Conditioning consisted of four cycles of five minutes of cuff-induced arm ischemia with three minutes of reperfusion applied ~40 minutes before CECT. The primary outcome was SCr change after CECT.
Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. For all patients, conditioning reduced the risk ratio (RR) of increased SCr; RR 0.65 (95% confidence intervals 0.41 to 1.04). The protective effect was greater and the evidence for protection stronger when analysis was restricted to patients with pre-scan reduced renal function (eGFR
This best evidence topic was investigated according to a structured format. The question asked was: should duplex ultrasound (DUS) scanning be a routine component of surveillance following infrainguinal arterial bypass using vein conduit? We performed a systematic literature search and identified 4 studies (3 randomised controlled trials and 1 meta-analysis) that provided the best evidence. The highest quality study was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (n = 594). At 18 months following surgery, it found no difference in patency rates, amputations, vascular mortality or mortality. However it achieved just over half of anticipated recruitment and thus was underpowered. The remaining two randomised controlled trials had smaller sample sizes and methodological weaknesses and found conflicting results. Lundell et al. (n = 106) found improved primary assisted and secondary patency rates and fewer graft occlusions with a routine DUS policy. Ihlberg et al. (n = 152) found no difference in primary assisted patency or amputations although secondary patency was improved. A meta-analysis of mostly observational data (n = 6649) found fewer occlusions with routine DUS surveillance and no effect on amputations or mortality. Results are conflicting. The strongest evidence comes from the single high quality multi-centre trial. It appears as though routine DUS surveillance does not yield benefits in patient important outcomes. Further studies are needed.
COR of TM implants showed considerable deviation from the norm. Non-TM implants showed a COR within acceptable physiological range. TM components consistently failed to restore a natural COR in our cohort. The implications of this remain uncertain but must be considered in any decision to use TM.
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